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TABLE OF CONTENTS
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

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Amendment No. 2 to confidential draft submission
As submitted confidentially to the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 11, 2020 pursuant to the Jumpstart Our
Business Startups Act of 2012. This draft registration statement has not been publicly filed with the Securities and Exchange
Commission and all information herein remains strictly confidential.

Registration No. 333-              

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549



FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



Juno Topco, Inc.*
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  7372
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  82-3031543
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

100 Washington Ave S, Suite 1100
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Telephone: (612) 605-6625
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including
area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)



Dean Hager
Chief Executive Officer
100 Washington Ave S, Suite 1100
Minneapolis, MN 55401
Telephone: (612) 605-6625
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)



Copies of all communications, including communications sent to agent for service, should be sent to:

Robert M. Hayward, P.C.
Robert E. Goedert, P.C.
Alexander M. Schwartz
Kirkland & Ellis LLP
300 North LaSalle
Chicago, Illinois 60654
(312) 862-2000

 

Michael Kaplan
Marcel R. Fausten
Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP
450 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10017
(212) 450-4000

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:
As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.



             If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box:    o

             If this Form is filed to registered additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.    o

             Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer", "accelerated filer", "smaller reporting company", and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated Filer o   Non-accelerated filer ý   Smaller Reporting Company o

Emerging Growth Company ý

             If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.    o

       
 
Title of Each Class of Securities
to be Registered

  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)(2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee

 

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

  $                $             

 

(1)
Includes the aggregate offering price of shares of common stock subject to the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares.

(2)
Estimated solely for purposes of computing the amount of the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

             The registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

   


*
The registrant will change its name to "Jamf Holding Corp." prior to the completion of this offering. The term "Jamf Holding Corp." in this prospectus refers to Juno Topco, Inc.


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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

Subject to Completion. Dated                    , 2020

             Shares

LOGO

Common Stock



          This is an initial public offering of shares of common stock of Jamf Holding Corp.

          Prior to this offering, there has been no public market for the common stock. It is currently estimated that the initial public offering price per share will be between $              and $             . We have applied to list our common stock on the             under the symbol "                  ".

          We are an "emerging growth company" as defined under the federal securities laws, and as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced reporting requirements for this prospectus and may elect to do so in future filings.

          See "Risk Factors" beginning on page 17 to read about factors you should consider before buying shares of our common stock.

          Immediately after this offering, assuming an offering size as set forth above, funds controlled by our equity sponsor, Vista Equity Partners, will own approximately         % of our outstanding common stock (or         % of our outstanding common stock if the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full). As a result, we expect to be a "controlled company" within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the                  . See "Management — Corporate Governance — Controlled Company Status".



          Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.



  Per Share   Total
 

Initial public offering price

  $   $  

Underwriting discount(1)

  $   $  

Proceeds, before expenses, to Jamf Holding Corp. 

  $   $  

(1)
See "Underwriting" for a description of compensation payable to the underwriters.

          To the extent that the underwriters sell more than             shares of common stock, the underwriters have the option to purchase up to an additional             shares of our common stock at the initial public offering price less the underwriting discount.

          The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of common stock against payment in New York, New York on                  , 2020.



Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC   J.P. Morgan   BofA Securities   Barclays

   

Prospectus dated                          


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Prospectus Summary

    1  

Risk Factors

    17  

Forward-Looking Statements

    63  

Market and Industry Data

    65  

Use of Proceeds

    66  

Dividend Policy

    67  

Capitalization

    68  

Dilution

    70  

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

    72  

Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

    76  

Business

    94  

Management

    117  

Executive Compensation

    124  

Principal Shareholders

    130  

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

    132  

Description of Certain Indebtedness

    135  

Description of Capital Stock

    138  

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

    145  

Material U.S. Federal Income and Estate Tax Consequences to Non-U.S. Holders

    148  

Underwriting

    153  

Legal Matters

    161  

Experts

    161  

Where You Can Find More Information

    161  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

    F-1  

          Neither we nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any free writing prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The information contained in this prospectus is accurate only as of the date of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or of any sale of the common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and prospects may have changed since such date.

          For investors outside of the United States, neither we nor any of the underwriters have done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about, and to observe any restrictions relating to, this offering and the distribution of this prospectus outside of the United States.


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

          This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of us and this offering, you should read and carefully consider the entire prospectus, including the more detailed information set forth under "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes. Some of the statements in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. See "Forward-Looking Statements".

          Unless the context otherwise requires, the terms "Jamf", the "Company", "our company", "we", "us" and "our" in this prospectus refer to Jamf Holding Corp. and, where appropriate, its consolidated subsidiaries. The term "Vista" or "our Sponsor" refers to Vista Equity Partners, our equity sponsor, and the term "Vista Funds" refers to Vista Equity Partners Fund VI, L.P., Vista Equity Partners Fund VI-A, L.P., VEPF VI FAF, L.P., Vista Co-Invest Fund 2017-1 L.P. and VEPF VI Co-Invest 1, L.P.


Our Mission

          Our mission is to help organizations succeed with Apple.


Overview

          We are the standard in Apple Enterprise Management, and our cloud software platform is the only vertically-focused Apple infrastructure and security platform of scale in the world. We help organizations, including businesses, hospitals, schools and government agencies, connect, manage and protect Apple products, apps and corporate resources in the cloud without ever having to touch the devices. With Jamf's software, Apple devices can be deployed to employees brand new in the shrink-wrapped box, set up automatically and personalized at first power-on and administered continuously throughout the life of the device.

          Jamf was founded in 2002, around the same time that Apple was leading an industry transformation. Apple transformed the way people access and utilize technology through its focus on creating a superior consumer experience. With the release of revolutionary products like the Mac, iPod, iPhone, and iPad, Apple built the world's most valuable brand and became ubiquitous in everyday life.

          We believe employees have come to expect the same high-quality Apple user experience at work as they enjoy in their personal lives. This is often not possible as many organizations rely on legacy solutions to administer Apple devices or do not give employees a choice of device. Jamf's software solutions preserve and extend the native Apple experience, allowing employees to use their Apple devices as they do in their personal lives, while retaining their privacy and fulfilling IT's enterprise requirements around deployment, access and security.

          We have built our company through a singular focus on being the primary solution for Apple in the enterprise. Through our long-standing relationship with Apple, we have accumulated significant Apple technical experience and expertise that give us the ability to fully and quickly leverage and extend the capabilities of Apple products, operating systems, or OSs, and services. This expertise enables us to fully support new innovations and OS releases the moment they are made available by Apple. This focus has allowed us to create a best-in-class user experience for Apple in the enterprise and grow to approximately 34,000 customers in over 100 countries and territories as of September 30, 2019.

          We sell our Software-as-a-Service, or SaaS, solutions via a subscription model, through a direct sales force, online and indirectly via our channel partners, including Apple. Our multi-

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dimensional go-to-market model and cloud-deployed offering enable us to reach all organizations around the world, large and small, with our software solutions. As a result, we continue to see rapid growth and expansion of our customer base as Apple continues to gain momentum in the enterprise. Our customers include many highly recognizable brands and organizations including Apple itself, 8 of the 10 largest companies worldwide (according to Fortune), 7 of the 10 top global technology companies (according to Fortune), 23 of the 25 most valuable brands (according to the Forbes Most Valuable Brands rankings), and 9 of the 10 largest U.S. banks (based on total assets). Our focus on customer success and innovation has resulted in a Net Promoter Score that significantly exceeds industry averages. For further discussion on our Net Promoter Score, see "Market and Industry Data".

          Complementing our software platform is Jamf Nation, the world's largest online community of IT professionals focused exclusively on Apple in the enterprise. This active, grassroots community of over 90,000 members serves as a highly-qualified and efficient crowd-sourced Q&A engine for anyone with questions about Apple and Jamf deployments.

          As of December 31, 2018, our annual recurring revenue, or ARR, was $142 million and for the year ended December 31, 2018, our total revenue was $146.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, our net loss was $(36.3) million, our net cash provided by operating activities was $9.4 million and our Adjusted EBITDA was $6.6 million. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure that is not calculated and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP. See "Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a definition of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.


Industry Background

          Key trends impacting how enterprises use and manage technology to engage employees and drive productivity include:

Apple's democratization of technology

          Apple is ubiquitous. It is the most valuable brand in the world according to Forbes, and in 2018, it became the first company to cross a market capitalization of US$1 trillion. Apple's success has been driven by delivering the best user experience to its customers through its innovative combination of hardware, software and cloud services. It has transformed the technology landscape by placing the user first and designing everything around maximizing the Apple user experience.

          In the 1990s and early 2000s, endpoint technology was dominated by Microsoft Windows, particularly in the workplace. Many enterprises prioritized standardization over user experience in order to facilitate the deployment, security and management of massive numbers of Windows PCs. Employees were not typically given a choice in their devices. In the 2000s, Apple introduced a series of revolutionary products that transformed how the world interacts with technology. Apple released the iPod in 2001, followed by the iPhone in 2007 and the iPad in 2010. These products, which utilized Apple iOS (Apple's proprietary mobile OS), or iOS, shared a design element that placed the user first. The rapid rise in popularity of iOS devices, combined with the proliferation of web-based applications, created a 'halo effect', leading to a resurgence of Apple's Mac computer. Apple's consumer-focused technology provided a significantly more capable, intuitive and faster experience than the technology many employees previously had in the workplace.

          Apple's focus on the user experience has transformed employees' expectations for technology overall. Employees expect a simple, intuitive, seamless experience that fosters creativity, productivity and collaboration. Apple currently offers an entire ecosystem of desktops, laptops, tablets, phones and wearable devices designed to interoperate seamlessly at home, at work and everywhere in

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between. This has made Apple the leading technology brand overall and for millennials according to a 2019 brand intimacy study by MBLM.

The consumerization of IT

          The consumerization of IT refers to the migration of software and hardware products originally designed for personal use into the enterprise. Today, employees are often less inclined to draw a line between work and personal technology and commonly prefer not to settle for enterprise solutions that are harder to use than what they have at home. As the competition for talent escalates, we believe technology will play a central role in either improving or degrading the employee experience.

          Rapidly evolving workplace demographics are also accelerating the consumerization of IT. Millennials currently represent the largest segment of the U.S. workforce, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center. In addition, a 2014 study by the Brookings Institute predicted that millennials will make up 75% of the U.S. workforce by 2025. Millennials are the first digitally-native generation that has grown up with broadband, smartphones, tablets, laptops and a massive library of apps through which they interact with the world and each other. Millennials demand more from their enterprise IT organizations. They expect to work from anywhere at any time. They expect to be able to collaborate instantly. They expect to have a choice in the technology they use.

          This trend is expected to continue as younger generations enter the workforce and workplace technology continues to directly impact employment decision-making. In a 2019 survey conducted by Vanson Bourne and commissioned by us, approximately 70% of surveyed college students in five countries said they would be more likely to choose or stay at an organization that offers a choice in work computer, and if upfront cost was not a consideration, 71% said they would either use or would like to use a Mac computer.

          Consumerization of IT has been one of the most significant trends impacting enterprise IT over the past decade. This trend is exemplified by Apple's iPhone, which has pushed organizations to develop corporate policies that support the use of personal devices for work. As a result, Apple — the ultimate consumer technology company — has become critically important to enterprise IT organizations.

Apple's momentum in enterprise IT

          Fueled by Apple's popularity and the consumerization of IT, Apple devices have gained widespread acceptance across the enterprise, from the executive suite to new hires. As a result, Apple market share in the enterprise has grown significantly. According to Apple CEO Tim Cook, Apple is now in every Fortune 500 company, and "eight in ten companies are writing custom apps for their enterprise". Apple's enterprise revenue, disclosed as $25 billion in 2015, is estimated to have grown to over $40 billion in 2019 according to Atherton Research. Apple's commitment to the enterprise has expanded through partnerships with enterprise giants such as Accenture, Cisco, Deloitte, General Electric, IBM, Salesforce and SAP.

          Evidence of this momentum is further supported by Statcounter, an organization that aggregates data based on web traffic. According to Statcounter, Apple OSs comprised 21% of global web traffic (both business and consumer) in September 2019, up from 4% in January 2009. Apple's gains in the US have been even more significant, with Apple OSs now representing over 40% of web traffic in September 2019, compared to 33% for Microsoft and 24% for Google. Over that same period, the market share of Microsoft has declined from 92% to 33%.

          The increased use of mobile devices to access the internet is largely responsible for the decline in market share of Windows over the past decade. Over this same decade, however, the

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Mac computer has grown in popularity and market share, further demonstrating that Apple's increased use is not limited to iOS devices. While the Mac computer was once primarily associated with creative or artistic activities, it now represents a growing share of computers within the enterprise. As evidence of this, a recent IDC survey of U.S.-based commercial IT decision makers indicates that Mac represents 11% of their installed notebooks today and is expected to grow to 14% within two years. In Windows-based enterprise environments, Apple devices are typically deployed alongside an array of Windows and other devices and operate with Microsoft enterprise solutions. Finally, an additional driver of Mac growth is the end-of-life of Windows 7 in January 2020. Enterprise IT decision makers who participated in the IDC survey expect 13% of their current Windows 7 fleet to be replaced with Mac.

          Given the expectations of both current and future employees, offering employees a choice in technology is becoming imperative for many enterprises. When given a choice, more than 70% of employees surveyed worldwide would choose Mac over PC and iOS over Android, according to a 2018 survey conducted by us. Considering IDC's estimate of current Mac enterprise penetration, we believe there is significant opportunity to fill the gap between how many employees want a Mac and how many currently use one.

The limitations of legacy enterprise solutions

          Legacy solutions do not deliver the full Apple user experience because they are either outdated, overly Windows-centric or treat all devices the same across operating systems. In particular, cross-platform solutions that treat devices the same tend to rely on the lowest common denominator technology that is shared across the relevant ecosystems. Apple, Microsoft and Google have each introduced device-specific cloud services to automate enterprise IT processes. Fully embracing these cloud services demands specific focus on the respective ecosystem. Legacy solutions do not leverage the native capabilities of Apple and do not deliver the full Apple experience across several key areas, including the following:

    Provisioning and deployment.  Legacy solutions commonly rely on processes, such as disk imaging, that are manual or time-intensive for IT departments and diminish the Apple experience for the user.

    Operating system updates.  Cross-platform legacy solutions are unable to allocate sufficient resources to always support the latest operating systems from all manufacturers. This often results in such solutions not supporting the latest Apple OS features and can cause security vulnerabilities that put an organization at risk.

    Application licensing and lifecycle.  Cross-platform solutions offer limited options for application distribution and installation, which often require hands-on IT oversight and the need to wrap applications with middleware such as containers, degrading Apple's intended user experience. License tracking in the cross-platform solution environment can also be manual. All of this effort creates extra and error-prone work for IT departments and dilutes the Apple user experience.

    Endpoint protection.  Legacy solutions do not leverage Apple's native security tools and Endpoint Security framework, thereby providing limited visibility into an organization's fleet of Apple devices and limited identification of potential security threats.

    Identity-based access to resources.  The concept of a workplace perimeter is quickly fading as employees demand flexibility to work from anywhere with seamless access to enterprise applications and resources. Enterprises need to make it simple for users to authenticate and access enterprise resources from anywhere with a single identity.

    To provide users access to corporate resources, many organizations bind their devices with

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      Microsoft's Azure Active Directory, or AAD. While binding devices to AAD works well with Windows-based devices, it does not create an efficient experience for other ecosystems, including Apple. Additionally, to be able to service Apple devices in the enterprise, IT often creates a secondary administrator account on each device that tends to become a management headache, user experience burden and security risk.

          For enterprise Apple deployments, the limitations of legacy solutions all add up to higher operational and support costs, greater security vulnerability, lower productivity and a degraded user experience. While Apple devices may have higher upfront costs, implementing the full Apple experience results in higher productivity and lower total cost of ownership. Realizing these potential benefits requires an enterprise software solution specifically built for the Apple ecosystem.


Our Solution

          We are the standard in Apple Enterprise Management, and our cloud software platform is the only vertically-focused Apple infrastructure and security platform of scale in the world. Our SaaS solutions provide a cloud-based platform for full lifecycle enterprise IT management of Apple devices. We help organizations, including businesses, hospitals, schools and government agencies, connect, manage and protect Apple products, apps and corporate resources in the cloud without ever having to touch the devices. Our solutions are purpose-built to provide both technical and non-technical IT personnel with a single software platform to administer their end-users' Apple devices, while preserving the legendary Apple experience end-users have come to expect. We believe that our success is born out of a singular focus on Apple and our commitment to optimizing the end-to-end user experience. As of September 30, 2019, we had approximately 34,000 customers in more than 100 countries and territories.

          We believe employees have come to expect the same high-quality Apple user experience at work as they enjoy in their personal lives. This is often not possible as many organizations rely on legacy solutions to administer Apple devices or do not give employees a choice of device. Our software solutions preserve and extend the native Apple experience, allowing employees to use their Apple devices as they do in their personal lives, while retaining their privacy and fulfilling IT's enterprise requirements around deployment, access and security. Our software platform provides the following key benefits:

    Provisioning and deployment.  We provide a scalable, zero-IT-touch deployment right out of the shrink-wrapped box, personalized for each end-user. Our offering makes it possible for IT professionals to easily manage the traditionally challenging tasks of deployment, information encryption and loading and updating software, without ever touching the device.

    Operating system updates.  Many Apple users expect immediate access to new features by upgrading the moment Apple releases a new OS. Given our singular focus on Apple, we are able to offer robust, immediate support for OS feature updates so they can be effortlessly deployed on the same day they are released by Apple. IT teams have the flexibility to automate updates or let users initiate the updates, ensuring employees stay up-to-date with all of the latest security and privacy features.

    Application lifecycle and licensing.  We give IT teams the ability to automate key workflows related to the installation and management of applications ensuring a more efficient IT management process. We also facilitate the deployment of both Apple App Store and third-party applications. These capabilities include automated targeted distribution of apps to employees based on their work needs, user-initiated app installation via a customized enterprise app store, automated volume purchasing and license management and automated tracking and deployment of third-party software updates.

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    Endpoint protection.  We safeguard and amplify Mac security through an enterprise endpoint protection solution purpose-built for the Mac. Jamf endpoint protection is specifically designed to identify Mac-specific threats while preserving user experience and performance. Our software solution is built around the unique challenges that Apple devices face in enterprise security, with behavior-based detection of Apple specific threats and enterprise visibility into native Apple security tools.

    Identity-based access to resources.  We enable users to easily and securely connect to enterprise resources with a single cloud-based identity credential. Users can then immediately access all of their corporate applications and shared resources. Additionally, Jamf is able to dynamically block or grant administrative rights on the Apple device itself based on a user's cloud-based identity, thus removing the need for additional administrator accounts on the device.

    Self-service.  We extend the Apple experience with an enterprise self-service app that empowers end-users to satisfy their own IT needs. With a single click, users can install apps pre-approved by IT, automatically resolve common technical issues and easily connect and configure enterprise resources, like the nearest printer, without waiting for IT. Our self-service app empowers users to be productive and self-sufficient while simultaneously reducing the labor burden on IT.

          Our software platform provides value to both end-users and IT departments. Users receive the legendary Apple experience they have come to expect, and IT departments are able to empower employees, enhance productivity and lower total cost of ownership. According to an October 2019 Apple-commissioned study conducted by Forrester Consulting, The Total Economic Impact Of Mac In The Enterprise, a Mac in the enterprise results in $678 cost savings per device versus a comparable PC (when considering three-year hardware, software, support and operational costs), a 20% improvement in employee retention and a 5% increase in sales performance for sales employees. A Mac also results in 48 hours of increased productivity per employee over three years. These metrics result in a payback period of less than 6 months for a Mac.

          Furthermore, research by Hobson & Company commissioned by us consisting of 15 interviews with Jamf customers found benefits from simplifying IT management, reducing the time spent provisioning devices and the time spent managing apps by 80% and 90%, respectively. Additionally, that research found Jamf improved end-user experience, reducing end-user productivity loss due to technical problems by 60% and volume of helpdesk tickets by 15%. Jamf also helped mitigate risk by reducing the time IT spent creating inventory reports and time spent managing policy and settings changes by 90% and 65%, respectively. Overall, Hobson & Company found that a typical organization could expect a 217% five year return on investment and a 5.8 month payback period when using Jamf.


Our Relationship with Apple

          Jamf was founded in 2002 with the sole mission of helping organizations succeed with Apple, making it the first Apple-focused device management solution. Today, we have become the largest infrastructure and software platform built specifically for enterprise deployments of the Apple ecosystem. Our relationship with Apple has endured and grown to be multi-faceted over the past 17 years.

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          To continuously offer a software solution built specifically for Apple, we have always worked closely with Apple's worldwide developer relations organization in an effort to support all new Apple innovations the moment their hardware and software is released. Additionally, throughout the course of our relationship, Jamf and Apple have formalized several contractual agreements:

    Apple as a customer.  In 2010, Apple became a Jamf customer, using our software solution to deploy and secure its fleet of Apple devices internally. For the year ended December 31, 2018, Apple as a customer represented less than 1% of our total revenue.

    Apple as a channel partner in education and in retail.  In 2011, Apple became a Jamf channel partner in the education market, reselling our software solution to K-12 and higher education organizations within the United States. In 2012, Apple expanded their channel relationship by offering our software solution to businesses through Apple retail stores in the United States. For the year ended December 31, 2018, Apple as a channel partner facilitated approximately 9% of our bookings.

    Mobility Partner Program.  In 2014, we became a member of Apple's Mobility Partner Program, which focuses on solution development and effective go-to-market activities.

          Each of these contractual relationships continue to this day and span all enterprise technology across the Apple ecosystem, including Mac, iPad, iPhone and Apple TV. In addition to these contractual relationships, Apple and Jamf personnel frequently join forces to influence and collaborate as we work with customers, helping them succeed with Apple.


Market Opportunity

          We believe our solution addresses a large and growing market covering the use of Apple technology in the enterprise. According to Frost & Sullivan, the global total addressable market for Apple Enterprise Management is estimated to be $10.3 billion in 2019 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate, or CAGR, of 17.8% to $23.4 billion by the end of 2024. For a more detailed description regarding the calculation of our market opportunity, see Business — Market Opportunity".

          We believe our potential market opportunity could expand further as Apple may make additional devices available for enterprise management, such as the Apple Watch. Our opportunity may also expand further as we develop future solutions which provide value to enterprises managing their Apple ecosystem.


Our Strengths

          The following are key strengths which contribute directly to our ability to create value for customers, employees, partners and stockholders:

    Long-standing relationship with and singular focus on Apple.  We are the only vertically-focused Apple infrastructure and security platform of scale in the world, and we have built our company through a singular focus on being the primary solution for Apple in the enterprise. We have a collaborative relationship with Apple which, combined with our accumulated technical experience and expertise, enables us to fully support new Apple innovations and OS releases the moment they are made available by Apple.

    Strong support from Jamf Nation.  Jamf Nation is the world's largest online community of IT professionals exclusively focused on Apple in the enterprise. This active, grassroots community serves as a highly-qualified and efficient crowd-sourced Q&A engine for anyone with questions about Apple and Jamf deployments, acting as a resource for existing and

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      potential customers. Jamf Nation also serves as an efficient way to introduce potential customers to the Jamf brand and solutions.

    Standard for Apple in the enterprise.  As the only vertically-focused software platform of scale entirely dedicated to the Apple ecosystem, we are the standard for Apple in the enterprise. This is evidenced by our growing number of approximately 34,000 customers as of September 30, 2019, including 23 of the 25 most valuable brands in the world (according to Forbes Most Valuable Brands rankings). In addition, hundreds of independent customer ratings on popular software review websites, including Gartner Peer Insights, G2Crowd and Capterra, have earned Jamf recognition as the "Customers' Choice".

    Strong partner ecosystem.  Our meaningful expertise managing the Apple ecosystem and our unique understanding of enterprise customers have motivated us to publish a large catalog of open APIs so our customers can integrate and extend their existing software solutions. It is upon this robust API catalog that we have built a strong partner ecosystem that includes hundreds of integrations and solutions made available in our Jamf Marketplace.

    In addition to our developer partners, we have relationships with solution partners, such as Microsoft. Development activities with Microsoft have resulted in solutions that optimize the Apple ecosystem within a Microsoft-centric enterprise. For more detail on how we integrate with Microsoft, see "Business — Our Strengths".

    Effective go-to-market capabilities.  The combination of our strong partner ecosystem (including Apple and Microsoft), our e-commerce capability, and our extensive enterprise and inside sales organizations, have created a differentiated and powerful go-to-market approach. We believe this robust go-to-market structure can allow us to effectively and efficiently reach our entire addressable market, including both large and small organizations in all geographic regions throughout the world. This also allows us to "land and expand" within our customer base by beginning with a limited engagement at each customer and increasing that customer relationship over time.

    Differentiated technology.  While Jamf technology has many powerful capabilities built to satisfy the challenging requirements of connecting, managing and protecting Apple in the enterprise, specific innovations that set us apart from others in the market include:

    powerful architected-for-Apple agent;

    enterprise attributes and smart grouping;

    industry-specific workflows;

    high performance native Apple APIs; and

    enterprise self-service.


Our Growth Strategy

          We help organizations succeed with Apple by connecting the Apple experience with the needs of the enterprise. By preserving and enhancing the Apple experience in an enterprise context, we believe we can drive our growth within the current Apple ecosystem as well as fuel further Apple penetration in enterprises, which will extend our opportunity. The key elements of our growth strategy include:

    Extend technology leadership through R&D investment and new products.  We intend to continue investing in research and development and pursuing select technology acquisitions in order to enhance our existing solutions, add new capabilities and deployment options

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      and expand use cases. We believe this strategy of continued innovation will allow us to reach new customers, cross-sell to existing customers and maintain our position as the standard for Apple in the enterprise.

    Deliver unique industry-specific innovation.  We intend to continue developing and enhancing Apple-specific functionality for certain verticals such as education, healthcare, and hospitality. We believe targeted, vertical-specific functionality can help us further penetrate industries which already use Apple devices, or provide a differentiated solution to enter a new industry or solve a new use case.

    Grow customer base with targeted sales and marketing investment.  We aim to expand our customer base by continuing to make significant and targeted investments in our direct sales and marketing in an effort to attract new customers and drive broader awareness of our software solutions. In addition, with our expanded platform, we can reach beyond our historical sales efforts focused on IT executives and administrators, and sell to Chief Information Officers, or CIOs, Chief Information Security Officers, or CISOs, and line-of-business leaders. We also plan to increase our channel sales and marketing organization to deepen and expand our joint go-to-market efforts with channel partners in order to reach new territories and opportunities.

    Increase sales to existing customers.  We believe our base of approximately 34,000 customers as of September 30, 2019 represents a significant opportunity for sales expansion. Our opportunities to deliver further value to existing customers include (1) growing the customers' number of Apple devices currently in use; (2) selling additional Jamf products; (3) expanding customers' use of Jamf from one Apple product, like Mac, to additional Apple products used within the organization, like iPad, iPhone, and Apple TV; and (4) expanding the way customers use Apple products by showcasing capabilities available once customers fully embrace Jamf for deployment. The strength of Jamf's "land and expand" strategy is evidenced by our dollar-based net retention rate, which has exceeded 115% as of the end of each of the last seven fiscal quarters for the trailing twelve months.

    Expand global presence.  We have a large international presence which we intend to continue growing. For the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately 20% of our revenue originated outside of North America. We intend to continue making investments in our international sales and marketing channels to take advantage of this market opportunity, while refining our go-to-market approach based on local market dynamics.

    Grow and nurture Jamf Nation.  Jamf Nation is the world's largest online community of IT professionals focused exclusively on Apple in the enterprise. It consists of a knowledgeable and active community of over 90,000 Apple-focused administrators and Jamf users who come together to gain insight, share best practices, vet ideas with fellow administrators and submit product feature requests.

    Cultivate relationships with developer partners.  We believe one of the most powerful elements of our software platform is the ability to use published APIs to extend its value with other third-party or custom solutions. As of September 30, 2019, more than 100 integrations and value-added solutions were published on the Jamf Marketplace. These solutions extend the value of Jamf, protect customers' existing IT investments and encourage greater use and expansion of Jamf within the enterprise.

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Risks Associated with Our Business

          There are a number of risks related to our business, this offering and our common stock that you should consider before you decide to participate in this offering. You should carefully consider all the information presented in the section entitled "Risk Factors" in this prospectus. Some of the principal risks related to our business include the following:

    the potential impact of customer dissatisfaction with Apple or other negative events affecting Apple services and devices and failure of enterprises to adopt Apple products;

    the potentially adverse impact of changes in features and functionality by Apple on our engineering focus or product development efforts;

    changes in our continued relationship with Apple;

    the fact that we are not party to any exclusive agreements or arrangements with Apple;

    our reliance, in part, on channel partners for the sale and distribution of our products;

    risks associated with cyber-security events;

    the impact of reputational harm if users perceive our products as the cause of device failure;

    our ability to successfully develop new products or materially enhance current products through our research and development efforts; and

    the other factors set forth under "Risk Factors".

          These and other risks are more fully described in the section entitled "Risk Factors" in this prospectus. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. As a result, you could lose all or part of your investment in our common stock.


Our Sponsor

          We have a valuable relationship with our equity sponsor, Vista Equity Partners. In 2017, Vista formed our company for the purpose of acquiring all of the capital stock of JAMF Holdings, Inc. We refer to this transaction as the "Vista Acquisition". In connection with this offering, we will enter into a Director Nomination Agreement with Vista that provides Vista the right to designate nominees to our board of directors, or our Board, subject to certain conditions. See "Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Director Nomination Agreement" for more details with respect to the Director Nomination Agreement.

          Vista is a U.S.-based investment firm with offices in Austin, San Francisco, Chicago, New York and Oakland with more than $52 billion in cumulative capital commitments. Vista exclusively invests in software, data and technology-enabled organizations led by world-class management teams. As a value-added investor with a long-term perspective, Vista contributes professional expertise and multi-level support towards companies to realize their potential. Vista's investment approach is anchored by a sizable long-term capital base, experience in structuring technology-oriented transactions and proven management techniques that yield flexibility and opportunity.


General Corporate Information

          Jamf was founded in 2002. The issuer in this offering was incorporated in 2017 as Juno Topco, Inc., a Delaware corporation, in connection with the Vista Acquisition. In connection with this offering, we will change the name of our company to Jamf Holding Corp. Our principal executive offices are located at 100 Washington Ave S, Suite 1100, Minneapolis, MN. Our telephone number is (612) 605-6625. Our website address is www.jamf.com. The information contained on, or that can

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be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus or in deciding whether to purchase our common stock. We are a holding company and all of our business operations are conducted through our subsidiaries.

          This prospectus includes our trademarks and service marks such as "Jamf", which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws and are our property. This prospectus also contains trademarks, service marks, trade names and copyrights of other companies, such as "Amazon", "Apple" and "Microsoft", which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ® or ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and trade names.


Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

          We qualify as an "emerging growth company" as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (1) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (2) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.07 billion, (3) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer (this means the market value of common that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of the end of the second quarter of that fiscal year) or (4) the date on which we have issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period.

          An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable to public companies. These provisions include, but are not limited to:

    not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as amended, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act;

    reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements; and

    exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

          We have elected to take advantage of certain of the reduced disclosure obligations regarding financial statements (such as not being required to provide audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 or five years of Selected Consolidated Financial Data) in this prospectus and executive compensation in this prospectus and expect to elect to take advantage of other reduced burdens in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to our shareholders may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests.

          The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company like us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have elected to "opt-in" to this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that comply with such new or revised accounting standards on a non-delayed basis.

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THE OFFERING

Common stock offered

               shares

Option to purchase additional shares

 

             shares

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

 

             shares (or             shares if the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full)

Use of proceeds

 

We estimate that our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $             million, or approximately $             million if the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, assuming an initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and enable access to the public equity markets for us and our shareholders. We expect to use approximately $             million of the net proceeds of this offering (or $             million of the net proceeds of this offering if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) to repay outstanding borrowings under our term loan facility, or our Term Loan Facility, and the remainder of such net proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes. At this time, other than repayment of indebtedness under our Term Loan Facility, we have not specifically identified a large single use for which we intend to use the net proceeds and, accordingly, we are not able to allocate the net proceeds among any of these potential uses in light of the variety of factors that will impact how such net proceeds are ultimately utilized by us. See "Use of Proceeds" for additional information.

Controlled company

 

After this offering, assuming an offering size as set forth in this section, the Vista Funds will own approximately             % of our common stock (or             % of our common stock if the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full). As a result, we expect to be a controlled company within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the             . See "Management — Corporate Governance — Controlled Company Status".

Risk factors

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See "Risk Factors" elsewhere in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

Proposed trading symbol

 

"             "

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          The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding following this offering is based on              shares of common stock outstanding as of             , 2020, and excludes:

                      shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of             , 2020, with a weighted average exercise price of $             per share;

                      shares of common stock issuable upon vesting and settlement of restricted stock units, or RSUs, as of                          , 2020; and

                 million shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Omnibus Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, which will be adopted in connection with this offering.

          Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes:

    the             -for-1 stock split of our shares of common stock effected on             , 2020;

    the filing of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the adoption of our amended and restated bylaws, each in connection with the closing of this offering;

    no exercise of outstanding options or issuance of shares of common stock upon vesting and settlement of RSUs after             , 2020; and

    no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase up to             additional shares of common stock.

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SUMMARY CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

          The following tables summarize our consolidated financial data. The summary consolidated statement of income data and summary consolidated statements of cash flows data for the year ended December 31, 2018 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 (except for the pro forma share and pro forma net loss per share information) are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future. You should read the summary historical financial data below in conjunction with the section titled "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and the financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands,
except per
share amounts)
 

Consolidated Statement of Income Data:

       

Revenue:

       

Subscription

  $ 100,350  

Services

    20,206  

License

    26,006  

Total revenue

    146,562  

Cost of revenue:

       

Cost of subscription(1) (exclusive of amortization expense shown below)

    24,088  

Cost of services(1) (exclusive of amortization expense shown below)

    16,246  

Amortization expense

    8,969  

Total cost of revenue

    49,303  

Gross profit

    97,259  

Operating expenses:

       

Sales and marketing(1)

    51,976  

Research and development(1)

    31,515  

General and administrative(1)

    22,270  

Amortization expense

    21,491  

Total operating expenses

    127,252  

Loss from operations

    (29,993 )

Interest expense, net

    (18,203 )

Foreign currency transaction loss

    (418 )

Other income, net

    221  

Loss before income tax benefit

    (48,393 )

Income tax benefit

    12,137  

Net loss

  $ (36,256 )

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Per Share Data:(2)

       

Net loss per share:

       

Basic

  $ (38.97 )

Diluted

  $ (38.97 )

Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share:

       

Basic

    930,443  

Diluted

    930,443  

Pro forma net loss per share:(2)(3)

       

Basic

  $    

Diluted

  $    

Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share:(3)

       

Basic

       

Diluted

       

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flow Data:

   
 
 

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 9,360  

Net cash used in investing activities

  $ (5,802 )

Net cash provided by financing activities

  $ 1,770  

Non-GAAP Financial Data (unaudited):

       

Non-GAAP Gross Profit(4)

  $ 106,453  

Adjusted EBITDA(5)

    6,615  

(1)
Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 
 

    (in thousands)  
 

Cost of revenue:

       
 

Cost of subscription

  $ 225  
 

Cost of services

     
 

Sales and marketing

    529  
 

Research and development

    239  
 

General and administrative

    1,322  
 

  $ 2,315  
(2)
See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate our basic and diluted net loss per share and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.

(3)
Pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share and pro forma weighted-average common shares outstanding have been computed to give effect to the issuance by us of                           shares of common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us and the application of the net proceeds from this offering to repay $              million of outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility as set forth under "Use of Proceeds". This pro forma data is presented for informational purposes only and does not purport to represent what our net loss or net loss per share actually would have been had

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    the offering and use of proceeds therefrom occurred on January 1, 2018 or to project our net loss or net loss per share for any future period.

(4)
We define Non-GAAP Gross Profit as gross profit adjusted for stock-based compensation and amortization expense. For a reconciliation of Non-GAAP Gross Profit to gross profit, the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, see "Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures — Non-GAAP Gross Profit".

(5)
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss adjusted for interest expense, net, benefit of income taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense, acquisition related expense and other (income) expense, net. For a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, see "Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures — Adjusted EBITDA".

    As of December 31, 2018
 

    Actual     Pro Forma(1)(2)
 

    (in thousands)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

             

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 39,240   $    

Working capital(3)

  $ (27,230 ) $    

Total assets

  $ 853,384   $    

Deferred revenue

  $ 100,662   $    

Debt(4)

  $ 171,749   $    

Total liabilities

  $ 320,290   $    

Total stockholders' equity

  $ 533,094   $    

(1)
Gives effect to the issuance by us of                          shares of common stock in this offering and the application of the net proceeds from this offering to repay $              million of outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility as set forth under "Use of Proceeds", assuming an initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(2)
A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease each of cash and cash equivalents, working capital, total assets and total stockholders' equity on a pro forma basis by approximately $              million, assuming the number of shares offered, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each 1,000,000 increase or decrease in the number of shares offered would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $              million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price per share for the offering remains at $             , which is the midpoint of the estimated public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(3)
We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities.

(4)
Net of debt issuance costs of $3.3 million as of December 31, 2018.

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RISK FACTORS

          This offering and an investment in our common stock involve a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with the financial and other information contained in this prospectus, before you decide to purchase shares of our common stock. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects could be materially and adversely affected. As a result, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment in our common stock.


Risks Relating to Our Business

Because our products focus exclusively on Apple, potential customer dissatisfaction with Apple other negative events affecting Apple services and devices or failure of enterprises to adopt Apple products could have a negative effect on our results of operations.

          Our products are solely available for Apple devices. Because of this, our customers' satisfaction with our software and products is dependent in part upon their perceptions and satisfaction with Apple. Customer dissatisfaction with Apple could be attributed to us, impact our relationships with customers and/or result in the loss of customers across all of our products if any of our customers chose to discontinue or reduce their use of Apple devices. For example, any incident broadly affecting the interaction of Apple devices with necessary Apple services (e.g., iCloud or Apple push notifications), including any delays or interruptions in such Apple services, could negatively affect our products and solutions. Similarly, any cyber-security events affecting Apple devices could result in a disruption to Apple services, regulatory investigations, reputational damage and a loss of sales and customers for Apple. A prolonged disruption, cyber-security event or any other negative event affecting Apple could lead to customer dissatisfaction and could in turn damage our reputation with current and potential customers, expose us to liability and cause us to lose customers or otherwise harm our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, since all of our products and solutions are solely available on Apple devices, in the event of a prolonged disruption affecting Apple devices, we may not be able to provide our software to our customers. We may also incur significant costs for taking actions in preparation for, or in reaction to, events that damage Apple devices used by our customers.

          Overall, Apple's reputation and consumers' views of Apple products could change if other technology companies release products that compete with Apple devices that customers view more favorably. For example, other technology companies could introduce new technology or devices that reduce demand for Apple devices. Our financial results could also be harmed if customers choose non-Apple products based on cost, availability, user experience, functionality or other factors. The market for Apple products may not continue to grow, or may grow more slowly than we expect. As a result, enterprise adoption of Apple products may be slower than anticipated. Moreover, many enterprises use technology platforms other than Apple, and have used other technologies for a long time. While this creates significant market opportunity for these enterprises to adopt Apple technology, we cannot be certain that enterprises will adopt Apple technology. There are many factors underlying an enterprise's adoption of new technology, including cost, time and knowledge required to implement such technology, data transfer, compatibility with existing technology, familiarity with and institutional loyalty to technology other than Apple, among other factors. If these enterprise users do not continue to adopt Apple technologies at recent historical rates and the rates that we anticipate, our revenue growth will be adversely affected, there will be adverse consequences to our results of operations and will reduce the number of potential new Jamf customers. See also "— Certain estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate". Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Changes in features and functionality by Apple could cause us to make short-term changes in engineering focus or product development or otherwise impair our product development efforts or strategy, increase our costs, and harm our business.

          Our products depend on interoperability with Apple OSs and cloud services, including interoperability at the moment of each new Apple release. Apple does not typically preview its technology with us or other partners and, as such, we do not receive advanced notice of changes in features and functionality of Apple technologies with which our products need to interoperate. In addition, unforeseen events (such as discovery of vulnerabilities and release of patches) may constrain our ability to respond in a timely manner. In any such events, we may be forced to divert resources from our preexisting product roadmap in order to accommodate these changes. As a result of having a short time to implement and test changes to our products to accommodate these new features, there is an increased risk of product defects. The frequency and complexity of new Apple features and updates may make it difficult for us to continue to support new releases in a timely manner. In addition, if we fail to enable IT departments to support operating system upgrades upon release, our business and reputation could suffer. This could disrupt our product roadmap and cause us to delay introduction of planned solutions, features and functionality, which could harm our business.

          We rely on open standards for many integrations between our products and third-party applications that our customers utilize, and in other instances on such third parties making available the necessary tools for us to create interoperability with their applications. If application providers were to move away from open standards, or if a critical, widely-utilized application provider were to adopt proprietary integration standards and not make them available for the purposes of facilitating interoperability with our products, the utility of our products for our customers would be decreased. Furthermore, some of the features and functionality in our products require interoperability with operating system APIs. We also offer a robust catalog of APIs that our developer partners utilize to build integrations and solutions that are made available in our Jamf Marketplace to enhance features and functionality of our products. If operating system providers decide to restrict our access to their APIs, or if our developer partners cease to build integrations and solutions for our Jamf Marketplace, that functionality would be lost and our business could be impaired.

Changes in our continued relationship with Apple may have an impact on our success.

          We have a broad relationship with Apple that covers all aspects of our business. We have always worked closely with Apple's worldwide developer relations organization in an effort to support all new Apple innovations the moment the hardware or software is released. Apple and Jamf personnel frequently join forces to influence and collaborate as we work with customers. We also have several direct contractual relationships with Apple that span all enterprise devices across the Apple ecosystem, including Mac, iPad, iPhone and Apple TV. Additionally, Apple is a significant reseller of Jamf products, particularly in education. If we fail to maintain our current relationship with Apple, our ability to compete and grow our business may be materially impacted. For example, we may not be able to continue to support new Apple innovations and releases at the moment the hardware and software are released. If our relationship with Apple changes, it could become more difficult to integrate our products with Apple and could reduce or eliminate the sales we expect from Apple as a reseller. As a result, if we fail to maintain our current relationship with Apple, our business, financial condition and results of operation could be adversely affected.

We are not party to any exclusive agreements or arrangements with Apple.

          We are not party to any exclusive agreements or arrangements with Apple. Accordingly, while we believe our market opportunity expands as organizations increasingly adopt Apple technologies, the continued success and growth of our business is ultimately dependent upon our ability to compete effectively by reaching new customers, cross-selling to existing customers and maintaining

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our position as the standard for Apple in the enterprise. As a result, even if organizations' adoption of Apple technologies continues to increase, if we are not able to compete successfully, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be adversely affected. See "— If we fail to maintain, enhance or protect our brand, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer" and "— We are in a highly competitive market, and competitive pressures from existing and new companies, including as a result of consolidation in our market, may harm our business revenues, growth rates and market share".

We rely, in part, on channel partners for the sale and distribution of our products and, in some instances, for the support of our products. A loss of certain channel partners, a decrease in revenues from certain of these channel partners or any failure in our channel strategy could adversely affect our business.

          We rely on channel partners for the sale and distribution of a substantial portion of our products. For the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately 45% of our bookings were through channel partners. We anticipate that we will continue to depend on relationships with third parties, such as our channel partners and system integrators, to sell, market and deploy our products. Identifying partners, and negotiating and documenting relationships with them, requires significant time and resources. Our competitors may be effective in providing incentives to channel partners and other third parties to favor their products or services over subscriptions to our products and a substantial number of our agreements with channel partners are non-exclusive such that those channel partners may offer customers the products of several different companies, including products that compete with ours. Our channel partners may cease marketing or reselling our products with limited or no notice and without penalty. If our channel partners do not effectively sell, market or deploy our products, choose to promote our competitors' products or otherwise fail to meet the needs of our customers, our ability to grow our business and sell our products may be adversely affected. In addition, acquisitions of such partners by our competitors could result in a decrease in the number of our current and potential customers, as these partners may no longer facilitate the adoption of our applications by potential customers. Further, some of our partners are or may become competitive with certain of our products and may elect to no longer integrate with our products. If we are unsuccessful in establishing or maintaining our channel partners and system integrators, our ability to compete in the marketplace or to grow our revenue could be impaired, and our results of operations may suffer.

          In addition, our service provider partners often provide support to our customers and enter into similar agreements directly with our mutual customers to host our software and/or provide other value-added services. Our agreements and operating relationships with our service provider partners are complex and require a significant commitment of internal time and resources. In addition, our service provider partners are large corporations with multiple strategic businesses and relationships, and thus our business may not be significant to them in the overall context of their much larger enterprise. These partnerships may require us to adhere to outside policies, which may be administratively challenging and could result in a decrease in our ability to complete sales. Even if the service provider partner considers us to be an important strategic relationship, internal processes at these large partners are sometimes difficult and time-consuming to navigate.

If we or our third-party service providers suffer a cyber-security event, our reputation may be harmed, we may lose customers and we may incur significant liabilities, any of which would harm our business and operating results.

          Cyberattacks, computer malware, viruses, social engineering (including phishing and ransomware attacks) and general hacking are becoming more prevalent in our industry, and we may in the future become the target of third parties seeking unauthorized access to our confidential

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or sensitive information or that of our customers. While we have security measures in place designed to protect our and our customers' confidential and sensitive information and prevent data loss, these measures cannot provide absolute security and may not be effective to prevent a security breach, including as a result of employee error, theft, misuse or malfeasance, third-party actions, unintentional events or deliberate attacks by cyber criminals, any of which may result in someone obtaining unauthorized access to our customers' data, our data, our intellectual property and/or our other confidential or sensitive business information. In addition, third parties may attempt to fraudulently induce employees, contractors or users to disclose information, including user names and passwords, to gain access to our customers' data, our data or other confidential or sensitive information, and we may be the target of email scams that attempt to acquire personal information or company assets. Because techniques used to sabotage or obtain unauthorized access to systems change frequently and generally are not recognized until successfully launched against a target, we may be unable to anticipate these techniques, react in a timely manner or implement adequate preventative measures. We devote significant financial and personnel resources to implement and maintain security measures; however, these resources may not be sufficient, and as cyber-security threats develop, evolve, and grow more complex over time, it may be necessary to make significant further investments to protect our data and infrastructure.

          We use third parties to provide certain data processing services, including payment processing and hosting services; however, our ability to monitor our third-party service providers' data security is limited. Because we do not control our third-party service providers, or the processing of data by our third-party service providers, we cannot ensure the integrity or security of measures they take to protect and prevent the loss of our data or our customers' data.

          A security breach suffered by us or our third-party service providers, an attack against our service availability, any unauthorized, accidental or unlawful access or loss of data, or the perception that any such event has occurred, could result in a disruption to our service, litigation, an obligation to notify regulators and affected individuals, the triggering of service availability, indemnification and other contractual obligations, regulatory investigations, government fines and penalties, reputational damage, loss of sales and customers, mitigation and remediation expenses and other significant costs and liabilities. In addition, we may incur significant costs and operational consequences of investigating, remediating, eliminating and putting in place additional tools and devices designed to prevent future actual or perceived security incidents, as well as the costs to comply with any notification or other obligations resulting from any security incidents. We also cannot be certain that our existing insurance coverage will cover any indemnification claims against us relating to any security incident or breach, will be available in sufficient amounts to cover the potentially significant losses that may result from a security incident or breach, will continue to be available on acceptable terms or at all or that the insurer will not deny coverage as to any future claim. The successful assertion of one or more large claims against us that exceed available insurance coverage, or the occurrence of changes in our insurance policies, including premium increases or the imposition of large deductible or co-insurance requirements, could adversely affect our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations.

          We cannot assure you that our products or hosted services will not be subject to cyberattacks, or other security incidents, especially in light of the rapidly changing security threat landscape that our products and hosted services seek to address. Due to a variety of both internal and external factors, including, without limitation, defects or misconfigurations of our products, our products could become vulnerable to security incidents (both from intentional attacks and accidental causes). In addition, because the techniques used by computer hackers to access or sabotage networks and endpoints change frequently, are increasing in sophistication and generally are not recognized until launched against a target, there is a risk that advanced attacks could emerge that attack our software that we are unable to detect or prevent until after some of our customers are affected.

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          If a Jamf security product fails to detect a security incident, there could potentially be claims against Jamf for such security incident, which could require Jamf to pay damages and could hurt Jamf's reputation, whether or not the security incident was the fault of Jamf.

          Further, our customers and their service providers administer access to data and control the entry of such data. We offer tools and support for what we believe are best practices to maintain security utilizing our services, but customers are not required to utilize those tools or follow our suggested practices, and the obligation to install and update security protection for our products lies with our customers. As a result, a customer may suffer a cyber-security event on its own systems, unrelated to our own, and a malicious actor could obtain access to the customer's information held on our system. Even if such a breach is unrelated to our own security programs or practices, or if the customer failed to adequately protect our products, that breach could result in our incurring significant economic and operational costs in investigating, remediating, eliminating and putting in place additional tools and devices to further protect our customers from their own vulnerabilities, and could also result in reputational harm to us.

          As a result, the reliability and capacity of our information technology systems is critical to our operations and the implementation of our growth initiatives. Any cyber-security event or other material disruption in our information technology systems, or delays or difficulties in implementing or integrating new systems or enhancing current systems, could have an adverse effect on our business, and results of operations.

Although technical problems experienced by users may not be caused by our products, our business and reputation may be harmed if users perceive our products as the cause of a device failure.

          The ability of our products to operate effectively can be negatively impacted by many different elements unrelated to our products. For example, a user's experience may suffer from an incorrect setting made by his or her IT administrator on his or her device using our software, an issue relating to his or her employer's corporate network or an issue relating to an underlying operating system, none of which we control. Even though technical problems experienced by users may not be caused by our products, users often perceive the underlying cause to be a result of poor performance of our products. This perception, even if incorrect, could harm our business and reputation.

We invest significantly in research and development, and to the extent our research and development investments do not translate into new products or material enhancements to our current products, or if we do not use those investments efficiently, our business and results of operations would be harmed.

          A key element of our strategy is to invest significantly in our research and development efforts to develop new products and enhance our existing products to address additional applications and markets. For the year ended December 31, 2018, our research and development expense was approximately 22% of our revenue. If we do not spend our research and development budget efficiently or effectively on compelling innovation and technologies, our business may be harmed and we may not realize the expected benefits of our strategy. Moreover, research and development projects can be technically challenging and expensive. The nature of these research and development cycles may cause us to experience delays between the time we incur expenses associated with research and development and the time we are able to offer compelling products and generate revenue, if any, from such investment. Additionally, anticipated customer demand for a product we are developing could decrease after the development cycle has commenced, rendering us unable to recover substantial costs associated with the development of such product. If we expend a significant amount of resources on research and development and our efforts do not

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lead to the successful introduction or improvement of products that are competitive in our current or future markets, it would harm our business and results of operations.

If we are unable to attract new customers, retain our current customers or sell additional functionality and services to our existing customers, our revenue growth will be adversely affected.

          To increase our revenue, we must continue to attract new customers and increase sales to existing customers. As our market matures, product and service offerings evolve and competitors introduce lower cost or differentiated products or services that are perceived to compete with our products, our ability to sell our products could be adversely affected. Similarly, our sales could be adversely affected if customers or users within these organizations perceive that features incorporated into competitive products reduce the need for our products or if they prefer to purchase other products that are bundled with products offered by Apple or by other companies, including our partners, that operate in adjacent markets and compete with our products. As a result of these and other factors, we may be unable to attract new customers or increase sales to existing customers, which could have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, gross margins and other operating results, and accordingly, on the trading price of our common stock.

          We must also continually increase the depth and breadth of deployments of our products with our existing customers. While customers may initially purchase a relatively modest number of subscriptions or licenses, it is important to our revenue growth that they later expand the use of our software on substantially more devices or for more users throughout their business. We also need to upsell, or sell additional products, to the same customer in order to increase our revenues. Our ability to retain our customers and increase the amount of subscriptions or support and maintenance contracts our customers purchase could be impaired for a variety of reasons, including customer reaction to changes in the pricing of our products, competing priorities in IT budgets, or the other risks described herein. As a result, we may be unable to renew our subscriptions with existing customers or attract new business from existing customers, which would have an adverse effect on our business, revenue, gross margins, and other operating results, and accordingly, on the trading price of our common stock.

          In addition, our ability to sell additional functionality to our existing customers may require more sophisticated and costly sales efforts, especially as we target larger enterprises and more senior management who make these purchasing decisions, such as CIOs and CISOs and line-of-business leaders. Similarly, the rate at which our customers purchase additional products from us depends on a number of factors, including general economic conditions and the pricing of additional product functionality. If our efforts to sell additional functionality to our customers are not successful, our business and growth prospects would suffer.

          Our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions or support for our products after the expiration of the terms thereof. Our contracts are typically one year in duration. In addition, certain of our customers are able to terminate their contracts with us for any or no reason. In order for us to maintain or improve our results of operations, it is important that our customers maintain their subscriptions and renew their subscriptions with us on the same or more favorable terms. We cannot accurately predict renewal or expansion rates given the diversity of our customer base, in terms of size, industry, and geography. Our renewal and expansion rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including customer spending levels, customer dissatisfaction with our products, decreases in the number of users at our customers, changes in the type and size of our customers, pricing changes, competitive conditions, the acquisition of our customers by other companies, and general economic conditions. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions or licenses for our products, or if they reduce their subscription amounts at the time of renewal, our revenue and other results of operations will decline and our business will suffer. If our renewal or

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expansion rates fall significantly below the expectations of the public market, securities analysts, or investors, the trading price of our common stock would likely decline.

Certain estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth included in this prospectus may prove to be inaccurate.

          This prospectus includes our internal estimates of the addressable market for our products. Market opportunity estimates and growth forecasts, whether obtained from third-party sources or developed internally, are subject to significant uncertainty and are based on assumptions and estimates that may prove to be inaccurate. The estimates and forecasts in this prospectus relating to the size and expected growth of our target market, market demand and adoption, capacity to address this demand and pricing may also prove to be inaccurate. In particular, our estimates regarding our current and projected market opportunity are difficult to predict. The addressable market we estimate may not materialize for many years, if ever, and even if the markets in which we compete meet the size estimates and growth forecasted in this prospectus, our business could fail to grow at similar rates, if at all.

We have experienced rapid growth in recent periods, and our recent growth rates may not be indicative of our future growth. As our costs increase, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to achieve and, if achieved, maintain profitability.

          We have experienced significant revenue growth in recent periods. In future periods, we may not be able to sustain revenue growth consistent with recent history, or at all. We have also experienced significant growth in our customer adoption and have expanded and intend to continue to expand our operations, including our domestic and international employee headcount. We believe our revenue growth depends on a number of factors, including, but not limited to, our ability to:

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          We may not successfully accomplish any of these objectives, and as a result, it is difficult for us to forecast our future results of operations. Our historical growth rate should not be considered indicative of our future performance and may decline in the future. In future periods, our revenue could grow more slowly than in recent periods or decline for any number of reasons, including those outlined above. We also expect our operating expenses to increase in future periods, particularly as we continue to invest in research and development and technology infrastructure, expand our operations globally, develop new products and enhancements for existing products and as we begin to operate as a public company. If our revenue growth does not increase to offset these anticipated increases in our operating expenses, our business, financial position and results of operations will be harmed, and we may not be able to achieve or maintain profitability. In addition, the additional expenses we will incur may not lead to sufficient additional revenue to maintain historical revenue growth rates and profitability.

          As we expand our business, it is important that we continue to maintain a high level of customer service and satisfaction. As our customer base continues to grow, we will need to expand our account management, customer service and other personnel and our network of channel partners and system integrators to provide personalized account management and customer service. If we are not able to continue to provide high levels of customer service, our reputation, as well as our business, results of operations and financial condition, could be adversely affected.

We derive a substantial portion of our revenue from one product.

          For the year ended December 31, 2018, sales of subscriptions to our Jamf Pro product accounted for approximately 72% of our total revenue. We expect these subscriptions to account for a large portion of our total revenue for the foreseeable future. As a result, our operating results could suffer due to:

          Our inability to renew or increase sales of subscriptions to our products or market and sell additional products and functionality, or a decline in prices of our platform subscription levels, would harm our business and operating results more seriously than if we derived significant revenue from a variety of products. In addition, if the market for our products grows more slowly than anticipated, or if demand for our products does not grow as quickly as anticipated, whether as a result of competition, pricing sensitivities, product obsolescence, technological change, unfavorable economic conditions, uncertain geopolitical environment, budgetary constraints of our customers or other factors, our business, results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.

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If we are not able to scale our business and manage our expenses, our operating results may suffer.

          We have expanded specific functions over time in order to scale efficiently, to improve our cost structure and help scale our business. Our need to scale our business has placed, and will continue to place, a significant strain on our administrative and operational business processes, infrastructure, facilities and other resources. Our ability to manage our operations will require significant expenditures and allocation of valuable management resources to improve internal business processes and systems, including investments in automation. Further, we expect to continue to expand our business globally. International expansion may also be required for our continued business growth, and managing any international expansion will require additional resources and controls. If our operations, infrastructure and business processes fail to keep pace with our business and customer requirements, customers may experience disruptions in service or support or we may not scale the business efficiently, which could adversely affect our reputation and adversely affect our revenues. There is no guarantee that we will be able to continue to develop and expand our infrastructure and business processes at the pace necessary to scale the business, and our failure to do so may have an adverse effect on our business. If we fail to efficiently expand our engineering, operations, customer support, professional services, cloud infrastructure, IT and financial organizations and systems, or if we fail to implement or maintain effective internal business processes, controls and procedures, our costs and expenses may increase more than we planned or we may fail to execute on our product roadmap or our business plan, any of which would likely seriously harm our business, operating results and financial condition.

We may need to change our pricing models to compete successfully.

          The intense competition we face in the sales of our products and services and general economic and business conditions can put pressure on us to change our prices. If our competitors offer deep discounts on certain products or services or develop products that the marketplace considers more valuable than ours, we may need to lower prices or offer other favorable terms in order to compete successfully. Any such changes may reduce margins and could adversely affect operating results. Our competitors may offer lower pricing on their support offerings, which could put pressure on us to further discount our offerings. In addition, some of our competitors offer free or significantly discounted product offerings to our customers in order to incentivize switching from our products to such competitor's products, or to otherwise enter the Apple ecosystem. This may require us to offer discounts or other incentives to keep such customers, and we may not be able to match free product offerings or significant discounts offered by these competitors. This may result in customers choosing such competitor's products instead of ours. We also must determine the appropriate price of our offerings and services to enable us to compete effectively internationally. Our prices may also change because of discounts, a change in our mix of products toward subscription, enterprise-wide licensing arrangements, bundling of products, features and functionality by us or our competitors, potential changes in our pricing, anticipation of the introduction of new products or promotional programs for customers or channel partners.

          Any broad-based change to our prices and pricing policies could cause our revenue to decline or be delayed as our sales force implements and our customers adjust to new pricing policies. We or our competitors may bundle products for promotional purposes or as a long-term go-to-market or pricing strategy or provide guarantees of prices and product implementations. These practices could, over time, significantly constrain the prices that we can charge for certain of our products. If we do not adapt our pricing models to reflect changes in customer use of our products or changes in customer demand, our revenue could decrease.

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Disruptions, capacity limitations or interference with our use of the data centers operated by third-party providers that host our cloud services, including Amazon Web Services, could result in delays or outages of our cloud service and harm our business.

          We currently host our cloud service from third-party data center facilities operated by Amazon Web Services, or AWS, from several global locations. Any damage to, failure of or interference with our cloud service that is hosted by AWS, or by third-party providers we may utilize in the future, whether as a result of our actions, actions by the third-party data centers, actions by other third parties, or acts of God, could result in interruptions in our cloud service and/or the loss of our or our customers' data. While the third-party data centers host the server infrastructure, we manage the cloud services through our site reliability engineering team, and we need to support version control, changes in cloud software parameters and the evolution of our products, all in a multi-OS environment. As we utilize third-party data centers, we may move or transfer our data and our customers' data from one region to another. Despite precautions taken during this process, any unsuccessful data transfers may impair the delivery of our service. Many of our customer agreements contain contractual service level commitments to maintain uptime of at least 99.9% for our cloud services, and if we, AWS, or any other third-party data center facilities that we may utilize fail to meet these service level commitments, we may have to issue credits to these customers, which could adversely affect our operations. Impairment of, or interruptions in, our cloud services may reduce our subscription revenues, subject us to claims and litigation, cause our customers to terminate their subscriptions and adversely affect our subscription renewal rates and our ability to attract new customers. Our business will also be harmed if our customers and potential customers believe our services are unreliable. Additionally, any limitation of the capacity of our third-party data centers could impede our ability to scale, onboard new customers or expand the usage of existing customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

          We do not control, or in some cases have limited control over, the operation of the data center facilities we use, and they are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, floods, fires, power loss, telecommunications failures and similar events. They may also be subject to cyberattacks, computer viruses, disabling devices, break-ins, sabotage, intentional criminal acts, acts of vandalism and similar misconduct, and to adverse events caused by operator error. Despite precautions taken at these facilities, the occurrence of a natural disaster, an act of terrorism, war or other act of malfeasance, a decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems at these facilities could result in lengthy interruptions in our service and the loss of customer data and business. We may also incur significant costs for using alternative equipment or facilities or taking other actions in preparation for, or in reaction to, any such events.

          In the event that any of our agreements with our third-party service providers are terminated, there is a lapse or elimination of any services or features that we utilize or there is an interruption of connectivity or damage to facilities, whether due to actions outside of our control or otherwise, we could experience interruptions or delays in customer access to our platform and incur significant expense in developing, identifying, obtaining and/or integrating replacement services, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, and which would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

We provide service-level commitments under our subscription agreements. If we fail to meet these contractual commitments, we could be obligated to provide credits for future service or face subscription termination with refunds of prepaid amounts, which would lower our revenue and harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

          Many of our subscription agreements contain service-level commitments. If we are unable to meet the stated service-level commitments, including failure to meet the uptime and delivery requirements under our customer subscription agreements, we may be contractually obligated to

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provide these customers with service credits, which could significantly affect our revenue in the periods in which the uptime or delivery failure occurs and the credits are applied. We could also face subscription terminations, which could significantly affect both our current and future revenue. Any service-level failures could also damage our reputation, which could also adversely affect our business and results of operations.

If we fail to maintain, enhance or protect our brand, our ability to expand our customer base will be impaired and our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

          We believe that maintaining, enhancing and protecting the Jamf brand, including Jamf Nation, is important to support the marketing and sale of our existing and future products to new customers and expand sales of our products to existing customers. We also believe that the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in our market increases. Successfully maintaining, enhancing and protecting our brand will depend largely on the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, our ability to provide reliable products that continue to meet the needs of our customers at competitive prices, our ability to maintain our customers' trust, our ability to continue to develop new functionality and use cases, our ability to successfully differentiate our products and product capabilities from competitive products and our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce trademark and other intellectual property protection for our brand. Our brand promotion activities may not generate customer awareness or yield increased revenue, and even if they do, any increased revenue may not offset the expenses we incur in building our brand. If we fail to successfully promote, maintain or protect our brand, our business, financial condition and results of operations may suffer.

If we cannot maintain our corporate culture as we grow, our business may be harmed.

          We believe that our corporate culture has been a critical component to our success and that our culture creates an environment that drives and perpetuates our overall business strategy. We have invested substantial time and resources in building our team and we expect to continue to hire aggressively as we expand both locally and internationally. As we grow and mature as a public company and grow internationally, we may find it difficult to maintain our corporate culture. Any failure to preserve our culture could negatively affect our future success, including our ability to recruit and retain personnel and effectively focus on and pursue our business strategy.

If Jamf Nation does not continue to thrive as we grow and expand our business, or if content posted on Jamf Nation is inaccurate, incomplete or misleading, our business could be adversely affected.

          Jamf Nation provides a critical support function for our products and solutions. We allow users of Jamf Nation to post content directly. While we monitor such posts, we cannot control what users post. As a result, we can provide no assurance that users of Jamf Nation will continue to provide support by responding to questions with respect to our existing products and solutions, or any new products and solutions we may develop as we grow and expand our business. Moreover, as we further expand our business into new geographies, we can provide no assurance that Jamf Nation users will provide support for any issues specific to those jurisdictions or in relevant languages. In addition, because we cannot control what users post, users may post content that may be inaccurate, incomplete or misleading, or that infringes, misappropriates or otherwise violates third-party intellectual property or proprietary rights. It may take us time to correct any inaccuracies or remove such posts, and we can provide no assurance that we will successfully correct or remove all posts that are inaccurate or that allege to infringe, violate or misappropriate third-party intellectual property or proprietary rights. As a result, customers relying on Jamf Nation for support for our products and solutions may suffer harm if the advice in a post is inaccurate, does not provide a thorough explanation or is inconsistent with our best practices or intended use of our

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products, which could in turn damage our reputation and cause customers to lose faith in Jamf Nation. Any of these factors could adversely affect our reputation and/or confidence in Jamf Nation and could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

If we fail to offer high-quality support, our business and reputation could suffer.

          Our customers rely on our customer support personnel to resolve issues and realize the full benefits that our products provide. High-quality support is also important for the renewal and expansion of our subscriptions with existing customers. The importance of our support function will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers. Many of our enterprise customers, particularly large enterprise customers, have complex networks and require high levels of focused support, including premium support offerings, to fully realize the benefits of our products. Any failure by us to maintain the expected level of support could reduce customer satisfaction and hurt our customer retention, particularly with respect to our large enterprise customers.

          Furthermore, as we sell our products internationally, our support organization faces additional challenges, including those associated with delivering support, training and documentation in languages other than English. Any failure to maintain high-quality customer support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, could materially harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations, and adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing and prospective customers. The importance of high-quality customer support will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers.

Acquisitions and divestitures could harm our business and operating results.

          We have acquired in the past, and plan to acquire in the future, other businesses, products or technologies. In February 2019, we acquired ZuluDesk, which has enhanced our Jamf School product, and in July 2019, we acquired Digita Security, which helped us to develop Jamf Protect. In connection with the Digita Security acquisition, we have also agreed to an earn-out arrangement providing for up to $15 million payable to the seller in that transaction, subject to meeting certain conditions. To the extent we defer the payment of the purchase price for any acquisition or license through a cash earn-out arrangement, it will reduce our cash flows in subsequent periods. Acquisitions and divestures involve significant risks and uncertainties, which include:

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We may not be able to respond to rapid technological changes with new products and services offerings. If we fail to predict and respond rapidly to evolving technological trends and our customers' changing needs, we may not be able to remain competitive.

          Our market is characterized by rapid technological change, changing customer needs, frequent new software product introductions and evolving industry standards. The introduction of third-party products embodying new technologies and the emergence of new industry standards and Apple OSs and products could make our existing and future software products obsolete and unmarketable. We may not be able to develop updated products and services that keep pace with these and other technological developments that address the increasingly sophisticated needs of our customers or that meet new industry standards or interoperate with new or updated operating systems and hardware devices. We may also fail to adequately anticipate and prepare for the commercialization of emerging technologies and the development of new markets and applications for our technology and thereby fail to take advantage of new market opportunities or fall behind early movers in those markets. Our customers require that our products effectively identify and respond to these challenges on a timely basis without disrupting the performance of our customers' IT systems or interrupting their operations. As a result, we must continually modify and improve our offerings in response to these changes on a timely basis. If we are unable to evolve our products in time to respond to and remain ahead of new technological developments, our ability to retain or increase market share and revenue in our markets could be materially adversely affected.

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          Our ability to expand sales of our products depends on several factors, including potential customer awareness of our products; the timely completion, introduction and market acceptance of enhancements to our products or new products that we may introduce; our ability to attract, retain, and effectively train inside and field sales personnel; our ability to develop or maintain integrations with partners; the effectiveness of our marketing programs; the costs of our products; and the success of our competitors. If we are unsuccessful in developing and marketing our products, or if organizations do not perceive or value the benefits of our products, the market for our products might not continue to develop or might develop more slowly than we expect, either of which would harm our growth prospects and operating results.

          In addition, the process of developing new technology is complex and uncertain, and if we fail to accurately predict customers' changing needs and emerging technological trends, our business could be harmed. We believe that we must continue to dedicate significant resources to our research and development efforts, including significant resources to developing new products and product enhancements before knowing whether the market will accept them. Our new products and product enhancements could fail to attain sufficient market acceptance for many reasons, including:

          Our competitors, particularly those with greater financial and operating resources, may be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. With the introduction of new technologies, the evolution of our products and new market entrants, we expect competition to intensify in the future. For example, as we expand our focus into new use cases or other product offerings beyond Jamf Now, Jamf Pro, Jamf School, Jamf Connect and Jamf Protect, we expect competition to increase. Pricing pressures and increased competition generally could result in reduced sales, reduced margins, losses or the failure of our products to achieve or maintain more widespread market acceptance.

We are in a highly competitive market, and competitive pressures from existing and new companies, including as a result of consolidation in our market, may harm our business, revenues, growth rates and market share.

          Our products seek to serve multiple markets, and we are subject to competition from a wide and varied field of competitors. Some competitors, particularly new and early-stage companies and large cross-platform enterprise providers, could focus all of their energy and resources on one product line or use case and, as a result, any one competitor could develop a more successful product or service in a particular market, which could decrease our market share and harm our brand recognition and results of operation. In addition, some of our competitors may be able to leverage their relationships with customers based on an installed base of products or to incorporate functionality into existing products to gain business in a manner that discourages customers from including us in competitive bidding processes, evaluating and/or purchasing our products. They have done this in the past, and may in the future do this, by selling at zero or negative margins, through product bundling or through enterprise license deals. Some potential customers, especially

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Global 2000 Companies, have already made investments in, or may make investments in, substantial personnel and financial resources and established deep relationships with these much larger enterprise IT vendors, which may make them reluctant to evaluate our products or work with us regardless of product performance or features. Potential customers may prefer to purchase a broad suite of products from a single provider, or may prefer to purchase products from an existing supplier rather than a new supplier, regardless of performance or features.

          With the recent increase in merger and acquisition transactions in the technology industry, particularly transactions involving cloud-based technologies, we may face increased competitive pressures in the future as a result of industry consolidation. Strategic or financial buyers, including our existing competitors, could acquire one or more of our competitors and provide alternative products that competes more effectively against us. In addition, Apple could either choose to develop competing technology or acquire one or more of our competitors and standardize those competing offerings for a particular Apple product line or use case, which could reduce or eliminate the utility of our products for that product line or use case. Additionally, Apple could acquire a company that creates products that compete with our products. As a result of any such industry consolidation, our competitive position and our ability to retain or increase market share and revenue in our markets could be materially adversely affected.

          For all of these reasons and others we cannot anticipate today, we may not be able to compete successfully against our current and future competitors, which could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

Adverse general and industry-specific economic and market conditions and reductions in IT spending may reduce demand for our products, which could harm our results of operations.

          Our revenue, results of operations and cash flows depend on the overall demand for our products. Concerns about the systemic impact of a potential widespread recession (in the United States or internationally), geopolitical issues or the availability and cost of credit could lead to increased market volatility, decreased consumer confidence and diminished growth expectations in the U.S. economy and abroad, which in turn could result in reductions in IT spending by our existing and prospective customers. Prolonged economic slowdowns may result in customers delaying or canceling IT projects, choosing to focus on in-house development efforts or seeking to lower their costs by requesting us to renegotiate existing contracts on less advantageous terms or defaulting on payments due on existing contracts or not renewing at the end of existing contract terms.

          Our customers may merge with other entities who use alternatives to our products and, during weak economic times, there is an increased risk that one or more of our customers will file for bankruptcy protection, either of which may harm our revenue, profitability and results of operations. We also face risk from international customers that file for bankruptcy protection in foreign jurisdictions, particularly given that the application of foreign bankruptcy laws may be more difficult to predict. In addition, we may determine that the cost of pursuing any claim may outweigh the recovery potential of such claim. As a result, broadening or protracted extension of an economic downturn could harm our business, revenue, results of operations and cash flows.

Failures in internet infrastructure or interference with broadband or wireless access could cause current or potential customers to believe that our products are unreliable, leading these customers to switch to our competitors or to avoid using our products, which could negatively impact our revenue or harm our opportunities for customer growth.

          Our products depend in part on our customers' high-speed broadband or wireless access to the internet. Increasing numbers of customers and bandwidth requirements may degrade the

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performance of our products due to capacity constraints and other internet infrastructure limitations, and additional network capacity to maintain adequate data transmission speeds may be unavailable or unacceptably expensive. If adequate capacity is not available to us, our products may be unable to achieve or maintain sufficient data transmission, reliability, or performance. In addition, if internet service providers and other third parties providing internet services, including incumbent phone companies, cable companies, and wireless companies, have outages or suffer deterioration in their quality of service, our customers may not have access to or may experience a decrease in the quality of our products. These providers may take measures that block, degrade, discriminate, disrupt, or increase the cost of customer access to our products. Any of these disruptions to data transmission could lead customers to switch to our competitors or avoid using our products, which could negatively impact our revenue or harm our opportunities for growth.

If we fail to offer high-quality support, our business and reputation could suffer.

          Our customers rely on our customer support personnel to resolve issues and realize the full benefits that our products provide. High-quality support is also important for the renewal and expansion of our subscriptions with existing customers. The importance of our support function will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers. Many of our enterprise customers, particularly large enterprise customers, have complex networks and require high levels of focused support, including premium support offerings, to fully realize the benefits of our products. Any failure by us to maintain the expected level of support could reduce customer satisfaction and hurt our customer retention, particularly with respect to our large enterprise customers.

          Furthermore, as we sell our products internationally, our support organization faces additional challenges, including those associated with delivering support, training and documentation in languages other than English. Any failure to maintain high-quality customer support, or a market perception that we do not maintain high-quality support, could materially harm our reputation, business, financial condition and results of operations, and adversely affect our ability to sell our products to existing and prospective customers. The importance of high-quality customer support will increase as we expand our business and pursue new customers.

Real or perceived errors, failures or bugs in our products could adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and growth prospects.

          Our products are complex, and therefore, undetected errors, failures, bugs or defects may be present in our products or occur in the future in our products, our technology or software or technology or software we license in from third parties, including open source software, especially when updates or new products are released. Such software and technology is used in IT environments with different operating systems, system management software, devices, databases, servers, storage, middleware, custom and third-party applications and equipment and networking configurations, which may cause errors, failures, bugs or defects in the IT environment into which such software and technology is deployed. This diversity increases the likelihood of errors, failures, bugs or defects in those IT environments. Despite testing by us, real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects may not be found until our customers use our products. Real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects in our products could result in negative publicity, loss of or delay in market acceptance of our products and harm to our brand, weakening of our competitive position, claims by customers for losses sustained by them or failure to meet the stated service level commitments in our customer agreements. In such an event, we may be required, or may choose, for customer relations or other reasons, to expend significant additional resources in order to help correct the problem. Any real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects in our products could also impair

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our ability to attract new customers, retain existing customers or expand their use of our products, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

          Moreover, as our products are adopted by an increasing number of enterprises, including education, healthcare and hospitality, it is possible that the individuals and organizations behind advanced cyberattacks will begin to focus on finding ways to hack our products. If this happens, our customers could be specifically targeted by attackers exploiting vulnerabilities in our products, which could adversely affect our reputation. Further, if a high profile security breach occurs with respect to any Apple OSs, our customers and potential customers may lose trust in our products generally in addition to any Apple OS products, such as ours in particular.

          Organizations are increasingly subject to a wide variety of attacks on their networks, systems, and endpoints. If any of our customers experiences a successful third-party cyberattack on our products, such customer could be dissatisfied with our products, regardless of whether theft of any of such customer's data occurred in such attack. Additionally, if customers fail to adequately deploy protection measures or update our products, customers and the public may erroneously believe that our products are especially susceptible to cyberattacks. Real or perceived security breaches against our products could cause disruption or damage to our customers' networks or other negative consequences and could result in negative publicity to us, damage to our reputation, lead to other customer relations issues and adversely affect our revenue and results of operations. We may also be subject to liability claims for damages related to real or perceived errors, failures, bugs or defects in our products. A material liability claim or other occurrence that harms our reputation or decreases market acceptance of our products may harm our business and results of operations. Finally, since some our customers use our products for compliance reasons, any errors, failures, bugs, defects, disruptions in service or other performance problems with our products may damage our customers' business and could hurt our reputation.

If there are interruptions or performance problems associated with our technology or infrastructure, our existing customers may experience service outages, and our new customers may experience delays in the deployment of our products.

          Our continued growth depends on the ability of our existing and potential customers to access our products and applications 24 hours a day, seven days a week, without interruption or degradation of performance. We may in the future experience disruptions, outages and other performance problems with our infrastructure due to a variety of factors, including infrastructure changes, introductions of new functionality, service interruptions from our hosting or technology partners, human or software errors, capacity constraints, distributed denial of service attacks or other security-related incidents. In some instances, we may not be able to identify the cause or causes of these performance problems immediately or in short order. We may not be able to maintain the level of service uptime and performance required by our customers or our contractual commitments, especially during peak usage times and as our products become more complex and our user traffic increases. If any of our products malfunction or if our customers are unable to access our products or deploy them within a reasonable amount of time, or at all, our business would be harmed. The adverse effects of any service interruptions on our reputation and financial condition may be disproportionately heightened due to the nature of our business and the fact that our customers expect continuous and uninterrupted access to our products and have a low tolerance for interruptions of any duration. Since our customers may rely on our products to secure their Apple products and systems, and because customers use our products to assist in necessary business and service interactions and to support customer and client-facing applications, any outage on our products would impair the ability of our customers to operate their businesses and provide necessary services, which would negatively impact our brand, reputation and customer satisfaction.

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          If Apple experiences service outages, such failure could interrupt our customers' access to our services, which could adversely affect their perception of our products' reliability and our revenue. Additionally, customers may attribute Apple service outages to our products, which may harm our reputation and cause our customers to ask us for assistance with these outages that are outside of our control. Any disruptions in these services, including as a result of actions outside of our control, would significantly impact the continued performance of our products. In the future, these services may not be available to us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we do not accurately predict our infrastructure capacity requirements, our customers could experience service shortfalls. We may also be unable to effectively address capacity constraints, upgrade our systems as needed and continually develop our technology and network architecture to accommodate actual and anticipated changes in technology.

          Any of the above circumstances or events may harm our reputation, cause customers to terminate their agreements with us, impair our ability to obtain subscription renewals from existing customers, impair our ability to grow our customer base, result in the expenditure of significant financial, technical and engineering resources, subject us to financial penalties and liabilities under our service level agreements, and otherwise could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We must attract and retain highly qualified personnel in order to execute our growth plan.

          Competition for highly qualified personnel is intense, especially for experienced design and software development engineers and sales professionals. In recent years, recruiting, hiring and retaining employees with expertise in our industry and in the geographies where we operate has become increasingly difficult as the demand for software professionals, particularly in the geographies where we maintain our facilities, has increased as a result of the proliferation of SaaS companies requiring these talents. We have, from time to time experienced, and we expect to continue to experience, difficulty in hiring and retaining employees with appropriate qualifications. Many of the companies with which we compete for experienced personnel have greater resources than we have. If we hire employees from competitors or other companies, their former employers may attempt to assert that these employees or we have breached certain legal obligations, resulting in a diversion of our time and resources. If we fail to attract new personnel or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, our business and future growth prospects could be harmed.

          In addition, job candidates and existing employees often consider the value of the equity awards they receive in connection with their employment. Volatility or lack of performance in our stock price may also affect our ability to attract and retain our key employees. Also, many of our employees have become, or will soon become, vested in a substantial amount of equity awards, which may give them a substantial amount of personal wealth. This may make it more difficult for us to retain and motivate these employees, and this wealth could affect their decision about whether or not they continue to work for us. Any failure to successfully attract, integrate or retain qualified personnel to fulfill our current or future needs could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

The loss of key management personnel could harm our business.

          We depend on the continued services of key management personnel, including our Chief Executive Officer, Dean Hager. We generally do not have fixed-term employment agreements with our employees, and, therefore, they could terminate their employment with us at any time without penalty. While we do enter into non-compete agreements with certain of our employees, they could pursue employment opportunities with other parties, including, potentially any of our competitors and there are no assurances that our non-compete agreements with any such key management personnel would be enforceable. Additionally, our non-compete periods expire, at which time key

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management personnel could work for any of our competitors. In addition, we do not maintain any key-person life insurance policies. The loss of key management personnel could harm our business.

Our customers face numerous competitive challenges, which may materially adversely affect their business and ours.

          Our customers include enterprises in a broad range of industries, including financial services, government, healthcare, legal, manufacturing, professional services, retail, technology and telecommunications. Factors adversely affecting our customers may also adversely affect us. These factors include:

          If our customers are unsuccessful in addressing these competitive challenges, their businesses may be materially adversely affected, reducing the demand for our services or decreasing our revenues, each of which could adversely affect our ability to cover fixed costs and our gross profit margins and results of operations.

We provide our products to state and local governments and to a lesser extent federal government agencies, and heavily regulated organizations in the U.S. and in foreign jurisdictions; as a result, we face risks related to the procurement process budget decisions driven by statutory and regulatory determinations, termination of contracts, and compliance with government contracting requirements.

          We sell our products and provide limited services to a number of state and local government entities (including, primarily, educational institutions) and, in limited instances, the U.S. government. We additionally have customers who operate in heavily-regulated organizations who procure our software products both through our partners and directly, and we have made, and may continue to make, significant investments to support future sales opportunities in these sectors. Doing business with government entities presents a variety of risks. Among other risks, the procurement process for governments and their agencies is highly competitive, can be time-consuming, requires us to incur significant up-front time and expense and subjects us to additional compliance risks and costs, without any assurance that we (or a third-party reseller) will win a contract. Beyond this, demand for our products and services may be impacted by public sector budgetary cycles and funding availability, and funding in any given fiscal cycle may be reduced or delayed, including in connection with an extended federal government shutdown, which could adversely impact demand

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for our products and services. In addition, public sector and heavily-regulated customers may have contractual, statutory or regulatory rights to terminate current contracts with us or our third-party distributors or resellers for convenience or due to a default. If a contract is terminated for convenience, we may only be able to collect fees for products or services delivered prior to termination and settlement expenses. If a contract is terminated due to a default, we may be liable for excess costs incurred by the customer for procuring alternative products or services or be precluded from doing further business with government entities. Further, entities providing services to governments are required to comply with a variety of complex laws, regulations, and contractual provisions relating to the formation, administration, or performance of government contracts that give public sector customers substantial rights and remedies, many of which are not typically found in commercial contracts. These may include rights with respect to price protection, the accuracy of information provided to the government, contractor compliance with supplier diversity policies, and other terms that are particular to government contracts, such as termination rights. These rules may apply to us and/or third parties through whom we resell our products and services and whose practices we may not control, where such parties' non-compliance could impose repercussions with respect to contractual and customer satisfaction issues. Federal, state, and local governments routinely investigate and audit contractors for compliance with these requirements. If, as a result of an audit or review, it is determined that we have failed to comply with these requirements, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, cost associated with the triggering of price reduction clauses, fines, and suspensions or debarment from future government business, and we may suffer harm to our reputation.

          Our customers also include a number of non-U.S. governments. Similar procurement, budgetary, contract, and audit risks that apply in the context of U.S. government contracting also apply to our doing business with these entities, particularly in certain emerging markets where our customer base is less established. In addition, compliance with complex regulations and contracting provisions in a variety of jurisdictions can be expensive and consume significant management resources. In certain jurisdictions, our ability to win business may be constrained by political and other factors unrelated to our competitive position in the market. Additionally, many of our current and prospective customers, such as those in the financial services and health care industries, are highly regulated and may be required to comply with more stringent regulations in connection with subscribing to and implementing our services. Each of these difficulties could result in substantial compliance burdens and could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

We are subject to stringent and changing privacy laws, regulations and standards, information security policies and contractual obligations related to data privacy and security. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could harm our business.

          We have legal and contractual obligations regarding the protection of confidentiality and appropriate use of personally identifiable information. We are subject to a variety of federal, state, local and international laws, directives and regulations relating to the collection, use, retention, security, disclosure, transfer and other processing of personally identifiable information. The regulatory framework for privacy and security issues worldwide is rapidly evolving and, as a result, implementation standards and enforcement practices are likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. We publicly post documentation regarding our practices concerning the collection, processing, use and disclosure of data.

          Although we endeavor to comply with our published policies and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or be alleged to have failed to do so. The publication of our privacy policy and other documentation that provide promises and assurances about privacy and security can subject

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us to potential state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair or misrepresentative of our actual practices. Any failure by us, our suppliers or other parties with whom we do business to comply with this documentation or with federal, state, local or international regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others. In many jurisdictions, enforcement actions and consequences for noncompliance are rising. In the United States, these include enforcement actions in response to rules and regulations promulgated under the authority of federal agencies and state attorneys general and legislatures and consumer protection agencies. In addition, privacy advocates and industry groups have regularly proposed, and may propose in the future, self-regulatory standards with which we must legally comply or that contractually apply to us. If we fail to follow these security standards even if no customer information is compromised, we may incur significant fines or experience a significant increase in costs.

          Internationally, virtually every jurisdiction in which we operate has established its own data security and privacy legal framework with which we or our customers must comply, including, but not limited to, the European Union, or EU. The EU's data protection landscape is currently unstable, resulting in possible significant operational costs for internal compliance and risk to our business. The EU has adopted the General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR, which went into effect in May 2018 and contains numerous requirements and changes from previously existing EU law, including more robust obligations on data processors and heavier documentation requirements for data protection compliance programs by companies. Among other requirements, the GDPR regulates transfers of personal data subject to the GDPR to third countries that have not been found to provide adequate protection to such personal data, including the United States. While we have taken steps to mitigate the impact on us with respect to transfers of data, such as self-certifying under the EU-US Privacy Shield, the efficacy and longevity of these transfer mechanisms remains uncertain. The GDPR also introduced numerous privacy-related changes for companies operating in the EU, including greater control for data subjects (including, for example, the "right to be forgotten"), increased data portability for EU consumers, data breach notification requirements and increased fines. In particular, under the GDPR, fines of up to 20 million euros or up to 4% of the annual global revenue of the noncompliant company, whichever is greater, could be imposed for violations of certain of the GDPR's requirements. Such penalties are in addition to any civil litigation claims by customers and data subjects. The GDPR requirements apply not only to third-party transactions, but also to transfers of information between us and our subsidiaries, including employee information.

          In addition to the GDPR, the European Commission has another draft regulation in the approval process that focuses on a person's right to conduct a private life (in contrast to the GDPR, which focuses on protection of personal data). The proposed legislation, known as the Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications, or ePrivacy Regulation, would replace the current ePrivacy Directive. While the new legislation contains protections for those using communications services (for example, protections against online tracking technologies), the timing of its proposed enactment following the GDPR means that additional time and effort may need to be spent addressing differences between the ePrivacy Regulation and the GDPR. New rules related to the ePrivacy Regulation are likely to include enhanced consent requirements in order to use communications content and communications metadata, which may negatively impact our products and our relationships with our customers.

          Complying with the GDPR and the ePrivacy Regulation, when it becomes effective, may cause us to incur substantial operational costs or require us to change our business practices. Despite our efforts to bring practices into compliance before the effective date of ePrivacy Regulation, we may not be successful in our efforts to achieve compliance either due to internal or external factors, such as resource allocation limitations or a lack of vendor cooperation. Non-compliance could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities, customers, data subjects or others. We

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may also experience difficulty retaining or obtaining new European or multi-national customers due to the legal requirements, compliance cost, potential risk exposure and uncertainty for these entities, and we may experience significantly increased liability with respect to these customers pursuant to the terms set forth in our engagements with them. While we utilize a data center in the European Economic Area to maintain certain customer data (which may include personal data) originating from the EU in the European Economic Area, we may find it necessary to establish additional systems and processes to maintain such data in the European Economic Area, which may involve substantial expense and distraction from other aspects of our business.

          Domestic laws in this area are also complex and developing rapidly. Many state legislatures have adopted legislation that regulates how businesses operate online, including measures relating to privacy, data security and data breaches. Laws in all 50 states require businesses to provide notice to customers whose personally identifiable information has been disclosed as a result of a data breach. The laws are not consistent, and compliance in the event of a widespread data breach is costly. States are also constantly amending existing laws, requiring attention to frequently changing regulatory requirements. Further, California recently enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act, or the CCPA, which is expected to take effect on January 1, 2020. The CCPA gives California residents expanded rights to access and delete their personal information, opt out of certain personal information sharing, and receive detailed information about how their personal information is used. The CCPA provides for civil penalties for violations, as well as a private right of action for data breaches that is expected to increase data breach litigation. The CCPA may increase our compliance costs and potential liability. Some observers have noted that the CCPA could mark the beginning of a trend toward more stringent privacy legislation in the United States, which could increase our potential liability and adversely affect our business.

          Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws along with contractually imposed industry standards are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our existing data management practices or the features of our products and product capabilities. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits, regulatory investigations, imprisonment of company officials and public censure, other claims and penalties, significant costs for remediation and damage to our reputation, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products and product capabilities, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business. Any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our customers may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our products. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our products, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations, and standards related to the internet, our business may be harmed.

Catastrophic events may disrupt our business.

          Natural disasters, pandemics, other catastrophic events may cause damage or disruption to our operations, international commerce and the global economy, thus harming our business. In the event of a major earthquake, hurricane or catastrophic event such as fire, power loss, pandemics, telecommunications failure, cyberattack, war or terrorist attack, we may be unable to continue our operations and may endure system interruptions, reputational harm, delays in our application development, lengthy interruptions in our products, breaches of data security and loss of critical data, all of which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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In addition, the insurance and incident response capabilities we maintain may not be adequate to cover or mitigate our losses resulting from disasters or other business interruptions.

Global economic conditions may harm our industry, business and results of operations.

          We operate globally and as a result our business and revenues are impacted by global macroeconomic conditions. Global financial developments seemingly unrelated to us or the software industry may harm us. From time to time, the United States and other key international economies have been impacted by geopolitical and economic instability, high levels of credit defaults globally, international trade disputes, falling demand for a variety of goods and services, high levels of persistent unemployment and wage and income stagnation in some geographic markets, restricted credit, poor liquidity, reduced corporate profitability, volatility in credit, equity and foreign exchange markets, bankruptcies, international trade agreements, trade restrictions and overall uncertainty with respect to the economy. These conditions can arise suddenly and affect the rate of information technology spending and could adversely affect our customers' ability or willingness to purchase our services, delay prospective customers' purchasing decisions, reduce the value or duration of their subscriptions, or affect renewal rates, all of which could harm our operating results. In 2019, for example, the growth rate in the economy of the European Union, or the EU, China, or the US, tariffs or trade relations between the US and China or other countries, political uncertainty in the Middle East and other geopolitical events could directly or indirectly affect our business, including, because such political uncertainty and events adversely impact Apple's business. Additionally, following the result of a referendum in 2016, the United Kingdom, or the U.K., left the the EU on January 31, 2020, commonly referred to as Brexit. Pursuant to the formal withdrawal arrangements agreed between the U.K. and EU, the U.K. will be subject to a transition period until December 31, 2020, or the Transition Period, during which EU rules will continue to apply. Negotiations between the U.K. and the EU are expected to continue in relation to the customs and trading relationship between the U.K. and the EU following the expiry of the Transition Period. The uncertainty concerning the U.K.'s legal, political and economic relationship with the EU after the Transition Period may be a source of instability in the international markets, create significant currency fluctuations, and/or otherwise adversely affect trading agreements or similar cross-border co-operation arrangements (whether economic, tax, fiscal, legal, regulatory or otherwise). We may also face new regulatory costs and challenges as a result of Brexit (including potentially divergent national laws and regulations between the U.K. and EU) that could have an adverse effect on our operations. For example, the U.K. could lose the benefits of global trade agreements negotiated by the EU on behalf of its members, which may result in increased trade barriers that could make our doing business in the EU and the European Economic Area more difficult.

          In addition, the effects, if any, of global financial conditions on our business can be difficult to distinguish from the effects on our business from product, pricing, and other developments in the markets specific to our products and our relative competitive strength. If we make incorrect judgments about our business for this reason our business and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Seasonality may cause fluctuations in our revenue.

          We believe there are significant seasonal factors that may cause us to record higher revenue in some quarters compared with others. We believe this variability is largely due to our customers' budgetary and spending patterns, as many customers spend the unused portions of their discretionary budgets prior to the end of their fiscal years. For example, we have historically recorded our highest level of total revenue in our fourth quarter, which we believe corresponds to the fourth quarter of a majority of our enterprise customers. We historically record our highest revenue from our education customers in our second quarter, which we believe corresponds to the end of the fiscal year of such customers. As our rate of growth has slowed, seasonal or cyclical variations in our operations may become more pronounced, and our business, results of operations and financial position may be adversely affected.

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Our quarterly operating results and other metrics may vary significantly and be unpredictable, which could cause the trading price of our stock to decline.

          Our operating results and other metrics have historically varied from period to period, and we expect that they will continue to do so as a result of a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and may be difficult to predict, including:

          Any one of the factors above or the cumulative effect of some of the factors referred to above may result in significant fluctuations in our financial and other operating results, including fluctuations in our key metrics. This variability and unpredictability could result in our failing to meet the expectations of securities analysts or investors for any period. If we fail to meet or exceed such expectations for these or any other reasons, the market price of our shares could fall substantially and we could face costly lawsuits, including securities class action suits.

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          We may fail to meet or exceed the expectations of securities analysts and investors, and the market price for our common stock could decline. If one or more of the securities analysts who cover us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, the market price for our common stock could decline. Additionally, our stock price may be based on expectations, estimates or forecasts of our future performance that may be unrealistic or may not be achieved. Further, our stock price may be affected by financial media, including press reports and blogs.

Changes in accounting principles and guidance could result in unfavorable accounting charges or effects.

          We prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. These principles are subject to interpretation by the SEC and various bodies formed to create and interpret appropriate accounting principles and guidance. A change in these principles or guidance, or in their interpretations, may have a material effect on our reported results, as well as our processes and related controls, and may retroactively affect previously reported results. For example, during February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The updated standard requires the recognition of a liability for lease obligations and a corresponding right-of-use asset on the balance sheet, and disclosures of certain information regarding leasing arrangements. We are currently assessing the timing and impact of adopting the updated provisions.

Our revenue recognition and other factors may impact our financial results in any given period and make them difficult to predict.

          Under accounting standards update No. 2014-09 (Topic 606), Revenue from Contracts with Customers, or ASC 606, we recognize revenue when our performance obligations have been satisfied in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those performance obligations. Our subscription revenue includes revenue from SaaS subscription and support and maintenance arrangements, which is recognized ratably over the contract period. License revenue includes revenue from on-premises perpetual licenses and the license portion of on-premises subscriptions. We recognize all license revenue up-front provided all revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied. Our services revenue consists of professional services and training provided to our customers, for which revenue is recognized as the services are performed. Our application of ASC 606 with respect to the nature of future contractual arrangements could impact the forecasting of our revenue for future periods, as both the mix of products and services we will sell in a given period, as well as the size of contracts, is difficult to predict.

          Furthermore, the presentation of our financial results requires us to make estimates and assumptions that may affect revenue recognition. In some instances, we could reasonably use different estimates and assumptions, and changes in estimates may occur from period to period. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies — Revenue Recognition".

          Given the foregoing factors, comparing our revenue and operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful, and our past results may not be indicative of our future performance.

Impairment of goodwill and other intangible assets would result in a decrease in earnings.

          We have in the past and may in the future acquire intangible assets. Current accounting rules require that goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives not be amortized, but instead be tested for impairment at least annually. These rules also require that intangible assets with definite useful lives be amortized over their respective estimated useful lives to their estimated residual values, and reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate

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that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Events and circumstances considered in determining whether the carrying value of amortizable intangible assets and goodwill may not be recoverable include, but are not limited to, significant changes in performance relative to expected operating results, significant changes in the use of the assets, significant negative industry or economic trends, or a significant decline in our stock price and/or market capitalization for a sustained period of time. To the extent such evaluation indicates that the useful lives of intangible assets are different than originally estimated, the amortization period is reduced or extended and the quarterly amortization expense is increased or decreased. Any impairment charges or changes to estimated amortization periods could have a material adverse effect on our financial results.

Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.

          We may need to raise additional funds, and we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms, if at all. If we raise additional equity financing, our securityholders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests. If we engage in additional debt financing, we may be required to accept terms that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, force us to maintain specified liquidity or other ratios or restrict our ability to pay dividends or make acquisitions. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:

          Our inability to do any of the foregoing could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We have indemnity provisions under our contracts with our customers, channel partners and other third parties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

          In our agreements with customers, channel partners and other third parties, we typically agree to indemnify them for losses related to claims by third parties of intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violation. Additionally, from time to time, customers require us to indemnify them for breach of confidentiality or violation of applicable law, among other things. Although we normally seek to contractually limit our liability with respect to such obligations, some of these agreements provide for uncapped liability and the existence of any dispute may have adverse effects on our customer relationships and reputation, and we may incur substantial liability related to them. In addition, provisions regarding limitation of liability in our agreements with customers, channel partners or other third parties may not be enforceable in some circumstances or jurisdictions or may not protect us from claims and related liabilities and costs. We maintain insurance to protect against certain types of claims associated with the use of our products, but our insurance may not adequately cover any such claims and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If any such indemnification obligations are triggered, we could face substantial liabilities or be forced to make changes to our products, enter into license agreements, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or terminate our agreements with customers, channel partners and other third parties and provide refunds. In addition, even claims that ultimately are unsuccessful could result in expenditures of management's

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time and other resources. Furthermore, any legal claims from customers and channel partners could result in reputational harm and the delay or loss of market acceptance of our products.

We may be sued by third parties for alleged infringement, misappropriation or other violation of their intellectual property and proprietary rights.

          There is considerable patent and other intellectual property development activity in our industry. Our success depends, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our products without infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating the intellectual property or proprietary rights of others. From time to time, our competitors or other third parties could claim that we are infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating their intellectual property or proprietary rights, we may become subject to intellectual property disputes and we may be found to be infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating such rights. A claim may also be made relating to technology that we acquire or license from third parties.

          We may be unaware of the intellectual property or proprietary rights of others that may cover some or all of our products. Regardless of merit, any claims or litigation could cause us to incur significant expenses and, if successfully asserted against us, could require that we pay substantial damages, costs and/or ongoing royalty payments, prevent us from offering our products, require us to obtain a license, which may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, require us to re-design our products, which could by costly, time-consuming or impossible or require that we comply with other unfavorable terms. If any of our customers are sued, we would in general be required to defend and/or settle the litigation on their behalf. In addition, if we are unable to obtain licenses or modify our products to make them non-infringing, we might have to refund a portion of license fees prepaid to us and terminate those agreements, which could further exhaust our resources. In addition, we may pay substantial settlement amounts or royalties on future product sales to resolve claims or litigation, whether or not legitimately or successfully asserted against us. Even if we were to prevail in the actual or potential claims or litigation against us, any claim or litigation regarding our intellectual property and proprietary rights could be costly and time-consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. Such disputes, with or without merit, could also cause potential customers to refrain from purchasing our products or otherwise cause us reputational harm.

          We do not currently have a large patent portfolio, which could prevent us from deterring patent infringement claims through our own patent portfolio, and our competitors and others may now and in the future have significantly larger and more mature patent portfolios than we have. Any litigation may also involve non-practicing entities, patent holding companies or other adverse patent owners. We cannot predict the outcome of lawsuits and cannot ensure that the results of any such actions will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

We rely on third-party software and intellectual property licenses.

          Our products include software and other intellectual property and proprietary rights licensed from third parties. It may be necessary in the future to seek or renew licenses relating to various aspects of our products. We have the expectation, based on experience and standard industry practice, that such licenses generally can be obtained on commercially reasonable terms. However, there can be no assurance that the necessary licenses would be available on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. Our inability to obtain certain licenses or other rights or to obtain such licenses or rights on favorable terms could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results, and financial conditions. In any such case, we may be required to seek licenses to other software or intellectual property or proprietary rights from other parties and re-design our products to function with such technology, or develop replacement technology ourselves, which could result in increased costs and product delays. We may also be forced to limit the features available in our current or future products. Moreover, incorporating intellectual property or

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proprietary rights licensed from third parties on a nonexclusive basis in our products, including our software could limit our ability to protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights in our products and our ability to restrict third parties from developing similar or competitive technology using the same third-party intellectual property or proprietary rights.

If we are unable to obtain, maintain, protect or enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights, our competitive position could be harmed or we could be required to incur significant expenses.

          Our ability to compete effectively is dependent in part upon our ability to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, including proprietary technology. We establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights, including our proprietary information and technology through a combination of licensing agreements, third-party nondisclosure agreements, confidentiality procedures and other contractual provisions, as well as through patent, trademark, trade dress, copyright, trade secret and other intellectual property laws in the United States and similar laws in other countries. However, the steps we take to obtain, maintain, protect and enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights may be inadequate. There can be no assurance that these protections will be available in all cases or will be adequate to prevent our competitors or other third parties from copying, reverse engineering, accessing or otherwise obtaining and using our technology, intellectual property or proprietary rights or products without our permission. The laws of some foreign countries, including countries in which our products are sold, may not be as protective of intellectual property and proprietary rights as those in the United States, and mechanisms for enforcement of intellectual property and proprietary rights may be inadequate. There can be no assurance that our competitors will not independently develop technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our technology or design around our intellectual property and proprietary rights. In each case, our ability to compete could be significantly impaired.

          In addition, third parties may seek to challenge, invalidate or circumvent our patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets or other intellectual property and proprietary rights, or any applications for any of the foregoing, including through administrative processes such as re-examination, inter partes review, interference and derivation proceedings and equivalent proceedings in foreign jurisdictions (e.g., opposition proceedings) or litigation. The legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property and proprietary rights are uncertain and still evolving. There can be no assurance that our patent applications will result in issued patents or whether the examination process will require us to narrow the scope of the claims sought. In addition, our issued patents, and any patents issued from our pending or future patent applications or licensed to us in the future may not provide us with competitive advantages, may be successfully challenged, invalidated or circumvented by third parties, or may not prove to be enforceable in actions brought against alleged infringers. The value of our intellectual property and proprietary rights could also diminish if others assert rights therein or ownership thereof, and we may be unable to successfully resolve any such conflicts in our favor or to our satisfaction.

          To prevent substantial unauthorized use of our intellectual property and proprietary rights, it may be necessary to prosecute actions for infringement, misappropriation and/or other violation of our intellectual property and proprietary rights against third parties. Any such action may be time-consuming and could result in significant costs and diversion of our resources and management's attention, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in such action, even when our rights have been infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated. Further, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property and proprietary rights may be met with defenses, counterclaims, and countersuits attacking the validity and enforceability of our intellectual property and proprietary

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rights, and if such defenses, counterclaims or countersuits are successful, we could lose valuable intellectual property and proprietary rights.

          Furthermore, many of our current and potential competitors have the ability to dedicate substantially greater resources to enforce their intellectual property and proprietary rights than we do. Accordingly, despite our efforts, we may not be able to prevent third parties from infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating our intellectual property and proprietary rights. Although we enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and enter into confidentiality agreements with other third parties, including customers and third-party service providers, we cannot guarantee that we have entered into such agreements with each party that has or may have had access to our proprietary information, know-how and trade secrets. Moreover, no assurance can be given that these agreements will be effective in controlling access to, distribution, use, misuse, misappropriation, reverse engineering or disclosure of our proprietary information, know-how and trade secrets. Further, these agreements may not prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our products and platform capabilities. These agreements may be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach.

Our use of open source software could impose limitations on our ability to commercialize our products or subject us to litigation or other actions.

          Our products contain software modules licensed for use from third-party authors under open source licenses, including MIT, Berkley Software Distribution and others, and we expect to continue to incorporate open source software in our products in the future. Use and distribution of open source software may entail greater risks than use of third-party commercial software, as open source licensors generally do not provide warranties or other contractual protections regarding infringement, misappropriation or other violation claims or the quality of the code. Some open source licenses contain requirements that we make available the source code of modifications or derivative works we create based upon, incorporating or using the type of open source software we use and that we license such modifications or derivative works under the terms of the applicable open source licenses. If we fail to comply, or are alleged to have failed to comply, with the terms and conditions of our open source licenses, we could be required to incur significant legal expenses defending such allegations, subject to significant damages, enjoined from the sale of our proprietary products and required to comply with onerous conditions or restrictions on our proprietary products, any of which could be disruptive to our business.

          Moreover, if we combine our proprietary products with open source software in a certain manner, we could, under certain of the open source licenses, be required to release the source code of our proprietary products to the public or offer our products to users at no cost. This could allow our competitors to create similar products with lower development effort and time and ultimately could result in a loss of sales for us. We cannot ensure that we have not incorporated open source software in our software in a manner that is inconsistent with the terms of the applicable license or our current policies, and we may inadvertently use open source in a manner that we do not intend or that could expose us to claims for breach of contract or intellectual property infringement, misappropriation or other violation.

          The terms of many open source licenses have not been interpreted by U.S. courts, and there is a risk that such licenses could be construed in a manner that could impose unanticipated conditions or restrictions on our ability to commercialize our products. In such an event, we could be required to seek licenses from third parties in order to continue offering our products, re-engineer our products, discontinue the sale of our products in the event re-engineering cannot be accomplished on a timely basis or make generally available, in source code form, all or a portion of our proprietary source code, any of which could materially and adversely affect our business and operating results.

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Our sales efforts require considerable time and expense.

          The timing of our sales can be difficult to predict. We and our channel partners are often required to spend significant time and resources to better educate and familiarize potential customers with the value proposition of our products. Customers often view the purchase of our products as a strategic decision and significant investment and, as a result, frequently require considerable time to evaluate, test and qualify our products prior to purchasing them. In particular, for customers in highly-regulated industries, the selection of a software provider is a critical business decision due to the sensitive nature of these customers' data, which results in particularly extensive evaluation prior to the selection of information security vendors. During the sales cycle, we expend significant time and money on sales and marketing and contract negotiation activities, which may not result in a sale. Additional factors that may influence the length and variability of our sales cycle include:

          If our efforts in pursuing sales and customers are unsuccessful, or if our sales cycles lengthen, our revenue could be lower than expected, which would adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.

Failure to effectively develop and expand our marketing and sales capabilities could harm our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our products.

          Our ability to increase our customer base and achieve broader market acceptance of our products will depend to a significant extent on our ability to expand our marketing and sales operations. We plan to continue expanding our direct sales force and engaging additional channel partners, both domestically and internationally. This expansion will require us to invest significant financial and other resources. Our business will be harmed if our efforts do not generate a corresponding increase in revenue. We may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from expanding our direct sales force if we are unable to hire and develop talented direct sales personnel, if our new direct sales personnel are unable to achieve desired productivity levels in a reasonable period of time or if we are unable to retain our existing direct sales personnel. We also may not achieve anticipated revenue growth from our channel partners if we are unable to attract and retain additional motivated channel partners, if any existing or future channel partners fail to successfully market, resell, implement or support our products for their customers, or if they represent multiple providers and devote greater resources to market, resell, implement and support the products and products of these other providers. We may not achieve our anticipated revenue growth. We may also experience labor market competition in expanding our sales force, particularly if we expand to new geographies and/or sectors. Any of these factors could harm our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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As we continue to pursue sales to new and existing enterprise customers, our sales cycle, forecasting processes, and deployment processes may become more unpredictable and require greater time and expense.

          Sales to new and existing enterprises involve risks that may not be present or that are present to a lesser extent with sales to smaller organizations. As we seek to increase our sales to enterprise customers, we face more complex customer requirements, substantial upfront sales costs, less predictability, and, in some cases, longer sales cycles than we do with smaller customers. With enterprises, the decision to subscribe to our products may require the approval of multiple management personnel and more technical personnel than would be typical of a smaller organization, and accordingly, sales to enterprises may require us to invest more time educating these potential customers. Purchases by larger enterprises are also frequently subject to budget constraints and unplanned administrative, processing, and other delays, which means we may not be able to come to agreement on the subscription terms with enterprises. Our ability to successfully sell our products to larger enterprises is also dependent upon the effectiveness of our sales force, including new sales personnel, who currently represent the majority of our sales force. In addition, if we are unable to increase sales of our products to larger enterprise customers while mitigating the risks associated with serving such customers, our business, financial position, and operating results may be adversely affected.

We rely upon free trials of our products and other inbound lead-generation strategies to drive our sales and revenue. If these strategies fail to continue to generate sales opportunities or trial users do not convert into paying customers, our business and results of operations would be harmed.

          We rely, in part, upon our marketing strategy of offering free trials of our products and other inbound, lead-generation strategies to generate sales opportunities. Many of our customers start with the free trial version of our products. These strategies may not be successful in continuing to generate sufficient sales opportunities necessary to increase our revenue. Many early users never convert from the trial version of a product to a paid version of such product. Further, we often depend on individuals within an organization who initiate the trial versions of our products being able to convince decision makers within their organization to convert to a paid version. Many of these organizations have complex and multi-layered purchasing requirements. To the extent that these users do not become, or are unable to convince others to become, paying customers, we will not realize the intended benefits of this marketing strategy, and our ability to grow our revenue will be adversely affected.

As a result of becoming a public company, we will be obligated to develop and maintain proper and effective internal control over financial reporting in order to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We may not complete our analysis of our internal control over financial reporting in a timely manner, or these internal controls may not be determined to be effective, which may adversely affect investor confidence in us and, as a result, the value of our common stock.

          Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting. Internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP. We are in the very early stages of the costly and challenging process of compiling the system and processing documentation necessary to perform the evaluation needed to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We may not be able to complete our evaluation, testing and any required remediation prior to becoming a public company or in a timely manner thereafter. If we are unable to assert that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our

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financial reports, which would cause the price of our common stock to decline, and we may be subject to investigation or sanctions by the SEC.

          We will be required, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of the end of the fiscal year that coincides with the filing of our second annual report on Form 10-K. This assessment will need to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our internal control over financial reporting. We will also be required to disclose changes made in our internal control and procedures on a quarterly basis. However, our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act until the later of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the SEC, or the date we are no longer an "emerging growth company" as defined in the JOBS Act if we take advantage of the exemptions contained in the JOBS Act. At such time, our independent registered public accounting firm may issue a report that is adverse in the event it is not satisfied with the level at which our controls are documented, designed or operating.

          Additionally, the existence of any material weakness or significant deficiency would require management to devote significant time and incur significant expense to remediate any such material weaknesses or significant deficiencies and management may not be able to remediate any such material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in a timely manner. The existence of any material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting could also result in errors in our financial statements that could require us to restate our financial statements, cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations and cause shareholders to lose confidence in our reported financial information, all of which could materially and adversely affect our business and stock price. To comply with the requirements of being a public company, we may need to undertake various costly and time-consuming actions, such as implementing new internal controls and procedures and hiring accounting or internal audit staff, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our management team has limited experience managing a public company.

          Many members of our management team have limited experience managing a publicly-traded company, interacting with public company investors, and complying with the increasingly complex laws pertaining to public companies. Our management team may not successfully or efficiently manage us as a public company that is subject to significant regulatory oversight and reporting obligations under the federal securities laws and the continuous scrutiny of securities analysts and investors. These new obligations and constituents require significant attention from our senior management and could divert their attention away from the day-to-day management of our business, which could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

We may face exposure to foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations.

          Today, our international contracts are usually denominated in U.S. dollars, and the majority of our international costs are denominated in local currencies. However, over time, it is possible that an increasing portion of our international contracts may be denominated in local currencies. Therefore, fluctuations in the value of the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies may affect our results of operations when translated into U.S. dollars. We do not currently engage in currency hedging activities to limit the risk of exchange rate fluctuations. However, in the future, we may use derivative instruments, such as foreign currency forward and option contracts, to hedge certain exposures to fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. The use of such hedging activities may not offset any or more than a portion of the adverse financial effects of unfavorable movements in foreign exchange rates over the limited time the hedges are in place. Moreover, the use of hedging instruments may introduce additional risks if we are unable to structure effective hedges with such instruments.

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We are subject to export controls and economic sanctions laws, and our customers and channel partners are subject to import controls that could subject us to liability if we are not in full compliance with applicable laws.

          Certain of our products are subject to U.S. export controls and we would be permitted to export such products to certain countries outside the U.S. only by first obtaining an export license from the U.S. government, or by utilizing an existing export license exception, or after clearing U.S. government agency review. Obtaining the necessary export license or accomplishing a U.S. government review for a particular export may be time-consuming and may result in the delay or loss of sales opportunities. Furthermore, U.S. export control laws and economic sanctions, including economic and trade sanctions regulations administered by the U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control, prohibit the sale or supply of our products and services to U.S. embargoed or sanctioned countries, regions, governments, persons and entities.

          Although we take precautions to prevent our solutions from being provided in violation of U.S. export control and economic sanctions laws, our solutions may have been in the past, and could in the future be, provided inadvertently in violation of such laws. If we were to fail to comply with U.S. export law requirements, U.S. customs regulations, U.S. economic sanctions or other applicable U.S. laws, we could be subject to substantial civil and criminal penalties, including fines, incarceration for responsible employees and managers and the possible loss of export or import privileges. U.S. export controls, sanctions and regulations apply to our channel partners as well as to us. Any failure by our channel partners to comply with such laws, regulations or sanctions could have negative consequences, including reputational harm, government investigations and penalties.

          Changes in our products or changes in export and import regulations may create delays in the introduction of our products into international markets, prevent our customers with international operations from deploying our products globally or, in some cases, prevent the export or import of our products to certain countries, governments or persons altogether. In addition, any change in export or import regulations, economic sanctions or related legislation, shift in the enforcement or scope of existing regulations, or change in the countries, governments, persons or technologies targeted by such regulations, could result in decreased use of our products by, or in our decreased ability to export or sell our products to, existing or potential customers with international operations. Any decreased use of our products or limitation on our ability to export or sell our products would likely adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

We are subject to anti-corruption, anti-bribery and similar laws, and non-compliance with such laws can subject us to criminal penalties or significant fines and harm our business and reputation.

          We are subject to anti-corruption and anti-bribery and similar laws, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, or the FCPA, the U.S. domestic bribery statute contained in 18 U.S.C. § 201, the U.S. Travel Act, the USA PATRIOT Act, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and other anti-corruption, anti-bribery and anti-money laundering laws in countries in which we conduct activities. Anti-corruption and anti-bribery laws have been enforced aggressively in recent years and are interpreted broadly and prohibit companies and their employees and agents from promising, authorizing, making, offering, soliciting, or accepting, directly or indirectly, improper payments or other improper benefits to or from any person whether in the public or private sector. As we increase our international sales and business, our risks under these laws may increase. Noncompliance with these laws could subject us to investigations, sanctions, settlements, prosecution, other enforcement actions, disgorgement of profits, significant fines, damages, other civil and criminal penalties or injunctions, adverse media coverage and other consequences. Any investigations, actions or sanctions could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.

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Our international operations may give rise to potentially adverse tax consequences.

          Our corporate structure and associated transfer pricing policies anticipate future growth into the international markets. The amount of taxes we pay in different jurisdictions may depend on the application of the tax laws of the various jurisdictions, including the United States, to our international business activities, changes in tax rates, new or revised tax laws or interpretations of existing tax laws and policies and our ability to operate our business in a manner consistent with our corporate structure and intercompany arrangements. The taxing authorities of the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our methodologies for pricing intercompany transactions, which are generally required to be computed on an arm's-length basis pursuant to intercompany arrangements or disagree with our determinations as to the income and expenses attributable to specific jurisdictions. If such a challenge or disagreement were to occur, and our position was not sustained, we could be required to pay additional taxes, interest and penalties, which could result in one-time tax charges, higher effective tax rates, reduced cash flows and lower overall profitability of our operations. Our financial statements could fail to reflect adequate reserves to cover such a contingency.

          As we continue to develop and grow our business globally, our success will depend in large part on our ability to anticipate and effectively manage these risks. The expansion of our existing international operations and entry into additional international markets will require significant management attention and financial resources. Our failure to successfully manage our international operations and the associated risks could limit the future growth of our business.

Changes in tax laws or regulations in the various tax jurisdictions we are subject to that are applied adversely to us or our customers could increase the costs of our products and harm our business.

          New income, sales, use or other tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be enacted at any time. Those enactments could harm our domestic and international business operations, and our business and financial performance. Further, existing tax laws, statutes, rules, regulations or ordinances could be interpreted, changed, modified or applied adversely to us. These events could require us or our customers to pay additional tax amounts on a prospective or retroactive basis, as well as require us or our customers to pay fines and/or penalties and interest for past amounts deemed to be due. If we raise our prices to offset the costs of these changes, existing and potential future customers may elect not to purchase our products in the future. Additionally, new, changed, modified or newly interpreted or applied tax laws could increase our customers' and our compliance, operating and other costs, as well as the costs of our products. Further, these events could decrease the capital we have available to operate our business. Any or all of these events could harm our business and financial performance.

Comprehensive tax reform legislation could adversely affect our business and financial condition.

          On December 22, 2017, tax reform legislation known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, or the Tax Act, was enacted in the United States. The Tax Act, among other things, included changes to U.S. federal tax rates, imposed significant additional limitations on the deductibility of interest and net operating loss carryforwards and allowed for the expensing of capital expenditures. Accounting for the income tax effects of the Tax Act and subsequent guidance issued required complex new calculations to be performed and significant judgments in interpreting the legislation. Additional guidance may be issued on how the provisions of the Tax Act will be applied or otherwise administered that is different from our interpretation, which could result in adjustments to the income tax effects of the Tax Act we have recorded at December 31, 2018. These adjustments could have a negative impact on our business and financial condition.

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Our ability to use our net operating losses to offset future taxable income may be subject to certain limitations.

          In general, under Section 382 of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, a corporation that undergoes an "ownership change" is subject to annual limitations on its ability to utilize its pre-change net operating losses, or NOLs, to offset future taxable income. Our ability to utilize the Company's current U.S. federal NOLs may be limited under Section 382 of the Code. If we undergo an ownership change, our ability to utilize NOLs could be further limited by Section 382 of the Code. Future changes in our stock ownership, many of which are outside of our control, could result in an ownership change under Section 382 of the Code. Furthermore, our ability to utilize NOLs of companies that we have acquired or may acquire in the future may be subject to limitations. For these reasons, we may not be able to utilize a material portion of the NOLs, even if we were to achieve profitability.

          The Tax Act significantly reformed the rules governing NOL carryforwards. While the Tax Act allows for U.S. federal NOLs incurred during our taxable year ended December 31, 2018 to be carried forward indefinitely, the Tax Act also imposes an 80% limitation, and indefinite carryforward, on our NOLs generated during our taxable year ended December 31, 2019, and forward. Deferred tax assets for NOLs will need to be measured at the applicable tax rate in effect when the NOL is expected to be utilized. The changes in the carryforward/carryback periods as well as the new limitation on use of NOLs may significantly impact our valuation allowance assessments for NOLs generated after December 31, 2017.


Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

Our existing indebtedness could adversely affect our business and growth prospects.

          As of December 31, 2018, we had total current and long-term indebtedness of $176.0 million, including (i) $175.0 million outstanding under our Term Loan Facility pursuant to the Credit Agreement, (ii) no borrowings outstanding under our revolving loan facility, or our Revolving Credit Facility, and together with the Term Loan Facility, our Credit Facilities, and (iii) $1.0 million of outstanding letters of credit outstanding under our Revolving Credit Facility. In addition, as of December 31, 2018, we had $14.0 million of additional borrowing capacity under our Revolving Credit Facility. All obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured by first-priority perfected security interests in substantially all of our assets and the assets of our domestic subsidiaries, subject to permitted liens and other exceptions. Our indebtedness, or any additional indebtedness we may incur, could require us to divert funds identified for other purposes for debt service and impair our liquidity position. If we cannot generate sufficient cash flow from operations to service our debt, we may need to refinance our debt, dispose of assets or issue equity to obtain necessary funds. We do not know whether we will be able to take any of these actions on a timely basis, on terms satisfactory to us or at all.

          Our indebtedness, the cash flow needed to satisfy our debt and the covenants contained in our Credit Facilities have important consequences, including:

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          Our level of indebtedness may place us at a competitive disadvantage to our competitors that are not as highly leveraged. Fluctuations in interest rates can increase borrowing costs. Increases in interest rates may directly impact the amount of interest we are required to pay and reduce earnings accordingly. In addition, developments in tax policy, such as the disallowance of tax deductions for interest paid on outstanding indebtedness, could have an adverse effect on our liquidity and our business, financial conditions and results of operations. Further, our Credit Facilities contain customary affirmative and negative covenants and certain restrictions on operations that could impose operating and financial limitations and restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to enter into particular transactions and to engage in other actions that we may believe are advisable or necessary for our business. Our Term Loan Facility is also subject to mandatory prepayments in certain circumstances, including a requirement to make a prepayment with a certain percentage of our excess cash flow. This excess cash flow payment, and other future required prepayments, will reduce our cash available for investment in our business.

          We expect to use cash flow from operations to meet current and future financial obligations, including funding our operations, debt service requirements and capital expenditures. The ability to make these payments depends on our financial and operating performance, which is subject to prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, economic and other factors beyond our control.

Despite current indebtedness levels and restrictive covenants, we may still be able to incur substantially more indebtedness or make certain restricted payments, which could further exacerbate the risks associated with our substantial indebtedness.

          We may be able to incur significant additional indebtedness in the future. Although the financing documents governing our Credit Facilities contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness and liens, these restrictions are subject to a number of important qualifications and exceptions, and the additional indebtedness and liens incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial.

          The financing documents governing our Credit Facilities permit us to incur certain additional indebtedness, including liabilities that do not constitute indebtedness as defined in the financing documents. We may also consider investments in joint ventures or acquisitions, which may increase our indebtedness. In addition, financing documents governing our Credit Facilities do not restrict our Sponsor from creating new holding companies that may be able to incur indebtedness without regard to the restrictions set forth in the financing documents governing our Credit Facilities. If new debt is added to our currently anticipated indebtedness levels, the related risks that we face could intensify.

We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flow to service all of our indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under such indebtedness, which may not be successful.

          Our ability to make scheduled payments or to refinance outstanding debt obligations depends on our financial and operating performance, which will be affected by prevailing economic, industry and competitive conditions and by financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We may not be able to maintain a sufficient level of cash flow from operating activities to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on the our indebtedness. Any failure to make payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness on a timely basis would likely result in a reduction of our credit rating, which would also harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness.

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          If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets, seek additional capital or seek to restructure or refinance our indebtedness. Any refinancing of our indebtedness could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. In the absence of such cash flows and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to sell material assets or operations to attempt to meet our debt service obligations. The financing documents governing our Credit Facilities including certain restrictions on our ability to conduct asset sales and/or use the proceeds from asset sales for general corporate purposes. We may not be able to consummate these asset sales to raise capital or sell assets at prices and on terms that we believe are fair and any proceeds that we do receive may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. If we cannot meet our debt service obligations, the holders of our indebtedness may accelerate such indebtedness and, to the extent such indebtedness is secured, foreclose on our assets. In such an event, we may not have sufficient assets to repay all of our indebtedness.

The terms of the financing documents governing our Term Loan Facilities restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes or to take certain actions.

          The financing documents governing our Term Loan Facilities contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interests, including restrictions on our ability to:

          You should read the discussion under the heading "Description of Certain Indebtedness" for further information about these covenants.

          The restrictive covenants in the financing documents governing our Credit Facilities require us to maintain specified financial ratios and satisfy other financial condition tests to the extent applicable. Our ability to meet those financial ratios and tests can be affected by events beyond our control.

          A breach of the covenants or restrictions under the financing documents governing our Credit Facilities could result in an event of default under such documents. Such a default may allow the creditors to accelerate the related debt, which may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In the event the holders of our indebtedness accelerate the repayment, we may not have sufficient assets to repay that indebtedness or be able to borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if we are able to obtain new

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financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms or on terms acceptable to us. As a result of these restrictions, we may be:

          These restrictions, along with restrictions that may be contained in agreements evidencing or governing other future indebtedness, may affect our ability to grow in accordance with our growth strategy.

We may be unable to refinance our indebtedness.

          We may need to refinance all or a portion of our indebtedness before maturity. We cannot assure you that we will be able to refinance any of our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all. There can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain sufficient funds to enable us to repay or refinance our debt obligations on commercially reasonable terms, or at all.

A lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned to our debt securities by rating agencies may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital.

          Our debt currently has a non-investment grade rating, and any rating assigned could be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency's judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes, so warrant. Any future lowering of our ratings likely would make it more difficult or more expensive for us to obtain additional debt financing.

Our failure to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies in the future could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.

          We may need to raise additional funds, and we may not be able to obtain additional debt or equity financing on favorable terms or at all. If we raise additional equity financing, our security holders may experience significant dilution of their ownership interests. If we engage in additional debt financing, we may be required to accept terms that restrict our ability to incur additional indebtedness, force us to maintain specified liquidity or other ratios or restrict our ability to pay dividends or make acquisitions. If we need additional capital and cannot raise it on acceptable terms, or at all, we may not be able to, among other things:

          In addition, our Term Loan Facilities also limit our ability to incur additional debt and therefore we likely would have to amend our Term Loan Facilities or issue additional equity to raise capital. If we issue additional equity, your interest in us will be diluted.

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Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock

Vista controls us, and its interests may conflict with ours or yours in the future.

          Immediately following this offering, Vista will beneficially own approximately         % of our common stock, or         % if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares, which means that, based on its percentage voting power held after the offering, Vista will control the vote of all matters submitted to a vote of our Board or shareholders, which will enable it to control the election of the members of the Board and all other corporate decisions. In addition, our bylaws will provide that Vista will have the right to designate the Chairman of the Board for so long as Vista beneficially owns at least 30% or more of the voting power of the then outstanding shares of our capital stock then entitled to vote generally in the election of directors. Even when Vista ceases to own shares of our stock representing a majority of the total voting power, for so long as Vista continues to own a significant portion of our stock, Vista will still be able to significantly influence the composition of our Board, including the right to designate the Chairman of our Board, and the approval of actions requiring shareholder approval. Accordingly, for such period of time, Vista will have significant influence with respect to our management, business plans and policies, including the appointment and removal of our officers, decisions on whether to raise future capital and amending our charter and bylaws, which govern the rights attached to our common stock. In particular, for so long as Vista continues to own a significant percentage of our stock, Vista will be able to cause or prevent a change of control of us or a change in the composition of our Board, including the selection of the Chairman of our Board, and could preclude any unsolicited acquisition of us. The concentration of ownership could deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your shares of common stock as part of a sale of us and ultimately might affect the market price of our common stock.

          In addition, in connection with this offering, we will enter into a Director Nomination Agreement with Vista that provides Vista the right to designate: (i) all of the nominees for election to our Board for so long as Vista beneficially owns 40% or more of the total number of shares of our common stock it owns as of the date of this offering; (ii) a number of directors (rounded up to the nearest whole number) equal to 40% of the total directors for so long as Vista beneficially owns at least 30% and less than 40% of the total number of shares of our common stock it owns as of the date of this offering; (iii) a number of directors (rounded up to the nearest whole number) equal to 30% of the total directors for so long as Vista beneficially owns at least 20% and less than 30% of the total number of shares of our common stock it owns as of the date of this offering; (iv) a number of directors (rounded up to the nearest whole number) equal to 20% of the total directors for so long as Vista beneficially owns at least 10% and less than 20% of the total number of shares of our common stock it owns as of the date of this offering; and (v) one director for so long as Vista beneficially owns at least 5% and less than 10% of the total number of shares of our common stock it owns as of the date of this offering. The Director Nomination Agreement will also provide that Vista may assign such right to a Vista affiliate. The Director Nomination Agreement will prohibit us from increasing or decreasing the size of our Board without the prior written consent of Vista. See "Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions — Related Party Transactions — Director Nomination Agreement" for more details with respect to the Director Nomination Agreement.

          Vista and its affiliates engage in a broad spectrum of activities, including investments in the information and business services industry generally. In the ordinary course of their business activities, Vista and its affiliates may engage in activities where their interests conflict with our interests or those of our other shareholders, such as investing in or advising businesses that directly or indirectly compete with certain portions of our business or are suppliers or customers of ours. Our certificate of incorporation to be effective in connection with the closing of this offering will provide that none of Vista, any of its affiliates or any director who is not employed by us (including any non-employee director who serves as one of our officers in both his director and

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officer capacities) or its affiliates will have any duty to refrain from engaging, directly or indirectly, in the same business activities or similar business activities or lines of business in which we operate. Vista also may pursue acquisition opportunities that may be complementary to our business, and, as a result, those acquisition opportunities may not be available to us. In addition, Vista may have an interest in pursuing acquisitions, divestitures and other transactions that, in its judgment, could enhance its investment, even though such transactions might involve risks to you.

Upon listing of our shares on the                  , we will be a "controlled company" within the meaning of the rules of the                  and, as a result, we will qualify for, and intend to rely on, exemptions from certain corporate governance requirements. You will not have the same protections as those afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to such governance requirements.

          After completion of this offering, the Vista Funds will continue to control a majority of the voting power of our outstanding common stock. As a result, we will be a "controlled company" within the meaning of the corporate governance standards of the                  . Under these rules, a company of which more than 50% of the voting power for the election of directors is held by an individual, group or another company is a "controlled company" and may elect not to comply with certain corporate governance requirements, including:

          Following this offering, we intend to utilize these exemptions. As a result, we may not have a majority of independent directors on our Board, our Compensation and Nominating Committee may not consist entirely of independent directors and our Compensation and Nominating Committee may not be subject to annual performance evaluations. Accordingly, you will not have the same protections afforded to stockholders of companies that are subject to all of the corporate governance requirements of the                  .

An active, liquid trading market for our common stock may not develop, which may limit your ability to sell your shares.

          Prior to this offering, there was no public market for our common stock. Although we have been approved to list our common stock on the                   under the symbol "                  ", an active trading market for our shares may never develop or be sustained following this offering. The initial public offering price will be determined by negotiations between us and the underwriters and may not be indicative of market prices of our common stock that will prevail in the open market after the offering. A public trading market having the desirable characteristics of depth, liquidity and orderliness depends upon the existence of willing buyers and sellers at any given time, such existence being dependent upon the individual decisions of buyers and sellers over which neither we nor any market maker has control. The failure of an active and liquid trading market to develop and continue would likely have a material adverse effect on the value of our common stock. The market price of our common stock may decline below the initial public offering price, and you may

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not be able to sell your shares of our common stock at or above the price you paid in this offering, or at all. An inactive market may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund operations by issuing shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration.

We are an "emerging growth company" and we expect to elect to comply with reduced public company reporting requirements, which could make our common stock less attractive to investors.

          We are an "emerging growth company", as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we are eligible for certain exemptions from various public company reporting requirements. These exemptions include, but are not limited to, (i) not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of Sarbanes-Oxley, (ii) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements, (iii) exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved and (iv) not being required to provide audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017, or five years of Selected Consolidated Financial Data, in this prospectus. We could be an emerging growth company for up to five years after the first sale of our common stock pursuant to an effective registration statement under the Securities Act, which fifth anniversary will occur in 2025. However, if certain events occur prior to the end of such five-year period, including if we become a "large accelerated filer", our annual gross revenue exceeds $1.07 billion or we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt in any three-year period, we would cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such five-year period. We have made certain elections with regard to the reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and may elect to take advantage of other reduced disclosure obligations in future filings. As a result, the information that we provide to holders of our common stock may be different than you might receive from other public reporting companies in which you hold equity interests. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive as a result of our reliance on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result of any choice we make to reduce disclosure, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and the market price for our common stock may be more volatile.

          Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies may also elect to delay adoption of new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have elected to "opt-in" to this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that comply with such new or revised accounting standards on a non-delayed basis.

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and distract our management, which could make it difficult to manage our business, particularly after we are no longer an "emerging growth company".

          As a public company, we will incur legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not previously incur. We will become subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the listing requirements of the                  and other applicable securities rules and regulations. Compliance with these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs, make some activities more difficult, time-consuming or costly and increase demand on our systems and resources, particularly after we are no longer an "emerging growth company". The Exchange Act

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requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business, financial condition and results of operations. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we establish and maintain effective internal controls and procedures for financial reporting. Furthermore, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may divert our management's attention from implementing our growth strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, financial condition and results of operations. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal controls and procedures for financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company. However, the measures we take may not be sufficient to satisfy our obligations as a public company. In addition, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain the same or similar coverage. These additional obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

          In addition, changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure are creating uncertainty for public companies, increasing legal and financial compliance costs and making some activities more time consuming. These laws, regulations and standards are subject to varying interpretations, in many cases due to their lack of specificity, and, as a result, their application in practice may evolve over time as new guidance is provided by regulatory and governing bodies. This could result in continuing uncertainty regarding compliance matters and higher costs necessitated by ongoing revisions to disclosure and governance practices. We intend to invest resources to comply with evolving laws, regulations and standards, and this investment may result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of our management's time and attention from sales-generating activities to compliance activities. If our efforts to comply with new laws, regulations and standards differ from the activities intended by regulatory or governing bodies due to ambiguities related to their application and practice, regulatory authorities may initiate legal proceedings against us and could have a material adversely effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Provisions of our corporate governance documents could make an acquisition of us more difficult and may prevent attempts by our shareholders to replace or remove our current management, even if beneficial to our shareholders.

          In addition to Vista's beneficial ownership of         % of our common stock after this offering (or         %, if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares), our certificate of incorporation and bylaws to be effective in connection with the closing of this offering and the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, contain provisions that could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us, even if doing so might be beneficial to our shareholders. Among other things:

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          Our certificate of incorporation to be effective in connection with the closing of this offering will contain a provision that provides us with protections similar to Section 203 of the DGCL, and will prevent us from engaging in a business combination with a person (excluding Vista and any of its direct or indirect transferees and any group as to which such persons are a party) who acquires at least 15% of our common stock for a period of three years from the date such person acquired such common stock, unless board or shareholder approval is obtained prior to the acquisition. See "Description of Capital Stock — Anti-Takeover Effects of Our Certificate of Incorporation and Our Bylaws". These provisions could discourage, delay or prevent a transaction involving a change in control of our company. These provisions could also discourage proxy contests and make it more difficult for you and other shareholders to elect directors of your choosing and cause us to take other corporate actions you desire, including actions that you may deem advantageous, or negatively affect the trading price of our common stock. In addition, because our Board is responsible for appointing the members of our management team, these provisions could in turn affect any attempt by our shareholders to replace current members of our management team.

          These and other provisions in our certificate of incorporation, bylaws and Delaware law could make it more difficult for shareholders or potential acquirers to obtain control of our Board or initiate actions that are opposed by our then-current Board, including delay or impede a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving our company. The existence of these provisions could negatively affect the price of our common stock and limit opportunities for you to realize value in a corporate transaction.

          For information regarding these and other provisions, see "Description of Capital Stock".

Our certificate of incorporation will designate the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain litigation that may be initiated by our shareholders, which could limit our shareholders' ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us.

          Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation to be effective in connection with the closing of this offering, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery

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of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers or other employees to us or our shareholders, (3) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws or (4) any other action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided that for the avoidance of doubt, the forum selection provision that identifies the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the exclusive forum for certain litigation, including any "derivative action", will not apply to suits to enforce a duty or liability created by Securities Act, the Exchange Act or any other claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. Our certificate of incorporation will further provide that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of our certificate of incorporation described above. See "Description of Capital Stock — Exclusive Forum". The forum selection clause in our certificate of incorporation may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against us or our directors and officers and may limit our shareholders' ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation to be inapplicable or unenforceable, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

If you purchase shares of common stock in this offering, you will suffer immediate and substantial dilution of your investment.

          The initial public offering price of our common stock is substantially higher than the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock. Therefore, if you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you will pay a price per share that substantially exceeds our pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering. Based on an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, the mid-point of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, you will experience immediate dilution of $             per share, representing the difference between our pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering and the initial public offering price. In addition, purchasers of common stock in this offering will have contributed         % of the aggregate price paid by all purchasers of our common stock but will own only approximately         % of our common stock outstanding after this offering. See "Dilution" for more detail.

Our management will have significant flexibility in using the net proceeds of this offering, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used appropriately.

          We intend to use approximately $              million of the net proceeds from this offering to repay outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility and the remainder for general corporate purposes, including working capital. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to acquire or invest in businesses, products and technologies that we believe will complement our business. However, depending on future developments and circumstances, we may use some of the proceeds for other purposes. We do not have more specific plans for the net proceeds from this offering, other than the repayment of outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility as described above. Therefore, our management will have significant flexibility in applying most of the net proceeds we receive from this offering. The net proceeds could be applied in ways that do not improve our operating results. The actual amounts and timing of these expenditures will vary significantly depending on a number of factors, including the amount of cash used in or generated by our operations. See "Use of Proceeds."

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Our operating results and stock price may be volatile, and the market price of our common stock after this offering may drop below the price you pay.

          Our quarterly operating results are likely to fluctuate in the future. In addition, securities markets worldwide have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility, as well as general economic, market or political conditions, could subject the market price of our shares to wide price fluctuations regardless of our operating performance. Our operating results and the trading price of our shares may fluctuate in response to various factors, including:

          These and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, may cause our operating results and the market price and demand for our shares to fluctuate substantially. Fluctuations in our quarterly operating results could limit or prevent investors from readily selling their shares and may otherwise negatively affect the market price and liquidity of our shares. In addition, in the past, when the market price of a stock has been volatile, holders of that stock have sometimes instituted securities class action litigation against the company that issued the stock. If any of our shareholders brought a lawsuit against us, we could incur substantial costs defending the lawsuit. Such a lawsuit could also divert the time and attention of our management from our business, which could significantly harm our profitability and reputation.

A significant portion of our total outstanding shares are restricted from immediate resale but may be sold into the market in the near future. This could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

          Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. After this offering, we will have                  outstanding shares of common stock based on the number of shares outstanding as of December 31, 2018. This includes the shares that we are selling in this offering, which may be resold in the public market immediately. Following the consummation of this offering, shares that are not being sold in this offering will be subject to a 180-day lock-up period provided under lock-up agreements executed in connection with this offering described in "Underwriting" and restricted from immediate resale under the federal securities laws as described

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in "Shares Eligible for Future Sale". All of these shares will, however, be able to be resold after the expiration of the lock-up period, as well as pursuant to customary exceptions thereto or upon the waiver of the lock-up agreement by Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC on behalf of the underwriters. We also intend to register shares of common stock that we may issue under our equity compensation plans. Once we register these shares, they can be freely sold in the public market upon issuance, subject to the lock-up agreements. As restrictions on resale end, the market price of our stock could decline if the holders of currently restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them.

Because we have no current plans to pay regular cash dividends on our common stock following this offering, you may not receive any return on investment unless you sell your common stock for a price greater than that which you paid for it.

          We do not anticipate paying any regular cash dividends on our common stock following this offering. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our Board and will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our Board may deem relevant. In addition, our ability to pay dividends is, and may be, limited by covenants of existing and any future outstanding indebtedness we or our subsidiaries incur, including under our Credit Facilities. Therefore, any return on investment in our common stock is solely dependent upon the appreciation of the price of our common stock on the open market, which may not occur. See "Dividend Policy" for more detail.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, if they adversely change their recommendations regarding our shares or if our results of operations do not meet their expectations, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

          The trading market for our shares will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. We do not have any control over these analysts. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock, or if our results of operations do not meet their expectations, our stock price could decline.

We may issue shares of preferred stock in the future, which could make it difficult for another company to acquire us or could otherwise adversely affect holders of our common stock, which could depress the price of our common stock.

          Our certificate of incorporation will authorize us to issue one or more series of preferred stock. Our Board will have the authority to determine the preferences, limitations and relative rights of the shares of preferred stock and to fix the number of shares constituting any series and the designation of such series, without any further vote or action by our shareholders. Our preferred stock could be issued with voting, liquidation, dividend and other rights superior to the rights of our common stock. The potential issuance of preferred stock may delay or prevent a change in control of us, discouraging bids for our common stock at a premium to the market price, and materially adversely affect the market price and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock.

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

          This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are subject to risks and uncertainties. All statements other than statements of historical fact included in this prospectus are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements give our current expectations and projections relating to our financial condition, results of operations, plans, objectives, future performance and business. You can identify forward-looking statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. These statements may include words such as "anticipate", "estimate", "expect", "project", "plan", "intend", "believe", "may", "will", "should", "can have", "likely" and other words and terms of similar meaning in connection with any discussion of the timing or nature of future operating or financial performance or other events. For example, all statements we make relating to our estimated and projected costs, expenditures, cash flows, growth rates and financial results or our plans and objectives for future operations, growth initiatives, or strategies are forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those that we expected, including:

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          We derive many of our forward-looking statements from our operating budgets and forecasts, which are based on many detailed assumptions. While we believe that our assumptions are reasonable, we caution that it is very difficult to predict the impact of known factors, and it is impossible for us to anticipate all factors that could affect our actual results. Important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations, or cautionary statements, are disclosed under "Risk Factors" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in this prospectus. All written and oral forward-looking statements attributable to us, or persons acting on our behalf, are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements as well as other cautionary statements that are made from time to time in our other SEC filings and public communications. You should evaluate all forward-looking statements made in this prospectus in the context of these risks and uncertainties.

          We caution you that the important factors referenced above may not contain all of the factors that are important to you. In addition, we cannot assure you that we will realize the results or developments we expect or anticipate or, even if substantially realized, that they will result in the consequences or affect us or our operations in the way we expect. The forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are made only as of the date hereof. We undertake no obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as otherwise required by law.

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

          Unless otherwise indicated, information in this prospectus concerning economic conditions, our industry, our markets and our competitive position is based on a variety of sources, including information from independent industry analysts and publications, as well as our own estimates and research. This information involves a number of assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to such estimates. While we believe the information presented in this prospectus is generally reliable, forecasts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs, estimates and projects involve risk and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those described under "Forward-Looking Statements" and "Risk Factors".

          Certain information in the text of this prospectus is contained in independent industry publications. The sources of these independent industry publications are provided below:

          This prospectus includes references to our Net Promoter Score. A Net Promoter Score is a metric used for measuring customer satisfaction and loyalty. We calculate our Net Promoter Score by asking customers the following question: "How likely are you to recommend Jamf to another organization?" Customers are then given a scale from 0 (labeled as "Not at all likely") to 10 (labeled as "Extremely Likely"). Customers rating us 6 or below are considered "Detractors", 7 or 8 are considered "Passives", and 9 or 10 are considered "Promoters". To calculate our Net Promoter Score, we subtract the total percentage of Detractors from the total percentage of Promoters. For example, if 50% of overall respondents were Promoters and 10% were Detractors, our Net Promoter Score would be 40. The Net Promoter Score gives no weight to customers who decline to answer the survey question. This method is substantially consistent with how businesses across Enterprise Software and other industries typically calculate their Net Promoter Score.

          Our most recent Net Promoter Score as of December 31, 2019 for our products Jamf Pro, Jamf Now and Jamf Connect on a consolidated basis was 55.6. We use our Net Promoter Score results to anticipate and provide more attention to customers who may be in the Detractor category and, for those in the Promoter category, as a predictive indicator of a customer's desire to remain a customer for the long-term.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

          We estimate that our net proceeds from this offering will be approximately $              million (or approximately $              million if the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full), assuming an initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

          The principal purposes of this offering are to increase our capitalization and financial flexibility, create a public market for our common stock and enable access to the public equity markets for us and our shareholders. We expect to use approximately $              million of the net proceeds of this offering (or $              million of the net proceeds of this offering if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full) to repay outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility and the remainder of such net proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes. The contract interest rate on the indebtedness that we intend to repay was 10.61% per annum as of December 31, 2018, and the maturity date is November 13, 2022. At this time, other than repayment of indebtedness under our Term Loan Facility, we have not specifically identified a large single use for which we intend to use the net proceeds and, accordingly, we are not able to allocate the net proceeds among any of these potential uses in light of the variety of factors that will impact how such net proceeds are ultimately utilized by us. Pending use of the proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the proceeds in a variety of capital preservation investments, including short-term, investment-grade and interest-bearing instruments.

          We may also use a portion of our net proceeds to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, products, services or technologies. However, we do not have agreements or commitments for any acquisitions or investments at this time.

          Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $              million, assuming the number of shares offered, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

          Each 1,000,000 increase or decrease in the number of shares offered would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $              million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price per share for the offering remains at $             , which is the midpoint of the estimated public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

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DIVIDEND POLICY

          We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business and to repay indebtedness and, therefore, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Additionally, our ability to pay dividends on our common stock is limited by restrictions on the ability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or make distributions to us. Any future determination to pay dividends will be at the discretion of our Board, subject to compliance with covenants in current and future agreements governing our and our subsidiaries' indebtedness, and will depend on our results of operations, financial condition, capital requirements and other factors that our Board may deem relevant.

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CAPITALIZATION

          The following table describes our cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of December 31, 2018, as follows:

          The pro forma information set forth in the table below is illustrative only and will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. You should read this table in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, "Use of Proceeds" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" included elsewhere in this prospectus.

    As of December 31,
2018
 

    Actual     Pro Forma  

    (dollars in thousands)  

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 39,240   $    

Total debt(1):

             

Revolving credit facility(2)

           

Term loan facility

    171,749        

Total debt

  $ 171,749        

Equity:

   
 
   
 
 

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 1,200,000 shares authorized, 933,179 shares issued and outstanding, actual;             shares authorized,              shares issued and outstanding, pro forma

    1        

Additional paid-in capital

    565,474        

Accumulated deficit

    (32,381 )      

Total stockholders' equity

    533,094        

Total capitalization

  $ 704,843   $    

(1)
Net of debt issuance costs of $3.3 million.

(2)
As of December 31, 2018, we had no amounts drawn under the revolving credit facility and had $14.0 million in undrawn capacity (with $1.0 million being used for letters of credit).

          A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease each of cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders' equity and total capitalization on a pro forma basis by approximately $              million, assuming the number of shares offered, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

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          Similarly, each 1,000,000 increase or decrease in the number of shares of common stock offered in this offering would increase or decrease each of cash and cash equivalents, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders' equity (deficit) and total capitalization on a pro forma basis by approximately $              million, based on an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

          Except as otherwise indicated, the above discussion and table are based on             shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and excludes:

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DILUTION

          If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.

          As of December 31, 2018, we had a net tangible book value of $(220.2) million, or $(235.99) per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share is equal to our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, divided by the number of outstanding shares of our common stock.

          After giving effect to the sale of shares of common stock in this offering, after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and the application of the net proceeds of this offering to repay $              million of outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility as set forth under "Use of Proceeds", at an assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover of this prospectus, our pro forma net tangible book value as of December 31, 2018 would have been $              million, or $             per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $             per share to our existing shareholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $             per share to investors participating in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

Assumed initial public offering price per share

        $                

Historical net tangible book value per share as of December 31, 2018

  $                      

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to the investors in this offering

             

Pro forma net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering

             

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to the investors in this offering

        $    

          A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease our pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering by $             , and would increase or decrease the dilution per share to the investors in this offering by $             , assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us. Similarly, each increase or decrease of one million shares in the number of shares of common stock offered by us would increase or decrease our pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering by $             and would increase or decrease dilution per share to investors in this offering by                          , assuming the assumed initial public offering price, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

          If the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full, the pro forma net tangible book value per share after this offering would be $             , and the dilution in pro forma net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering would be $             .

          The following table presents, on a pro forma basis as described above, as of December 31, 2018, the differences between our existing shareholders and the investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering, with respect to the number of shares purchased, the total consideration paid to us, and the average price per share paid by our existing shareholders or to be paid to us by investors purchasing shares in this offering at an assumed offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this

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prospectus, before deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 
  Shares Purchased   Total Consideration    
 
 
  Average
Price Per
Share
 
 
  Number   Percentage   Amount   Percentage  

Existing Shareholders

                    % $                             % $                

New Investors

                               

Total

                    % $                             %      

          A $1.00 increase or in the assumed initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease the total consideration paid by new investors by $              million and increase or decrease the percent of total consideration paid by new investors by          %, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and before deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

          Similarly, each 1,000,000 increase or decrease in the number of shares offered would increase or decrease the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $              million, assuming that the assumed initial public offering price per share for the offering remains at $             , which is the midpoint of the estimated public offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

          Except as otherwise indicated, the above discussion and tables assume no exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares. After giving effect to sales of shares in this offering, assuming the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, our existing shareholders would own         % and our new investors would own         % of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering.

          In addition, to the extent we issue any additional stock options or any stock options are exercised, or we issue any other securities or convertible debt in the future, investors participating in this offering may experience further dilution.

          Except as otherwise indicated, the above discussion and tables are based on                          shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018 and excludes:

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA

          The following tables present our selected consolidated financial data. The selected consolidated statements of operations data for the year ended December 31, 2018 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2018 are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are included elsewhere in this prospectus (except for the pro forma share and pro forma net loss per share information). Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future. You should read the selected historical financial data below in conjunction with the section titled "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and the financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands,
except per
share amounts)
 

Consolidated Statement of Income Data:

       

Revenue:

       

Subscription

  $ 100,350  

Services

    20,206  

License

    26,006  

Total revenue

    146,562  

Cost of revenue:

       

Cost of subscription(1) (exclusive of amortization expense shown below)

    24,088  

Cost of services(1) (exclusive of amortization expense shown below)

    16,246  

Amortization expense

    8,969  

Total cost of revenue

    49,303  

Gross profit

    97,259  

Operating expenses:

       

Sales and marketing(1)

    51,976  

Research and development(1)

    31,515  

General and administrative(1)

    22,270  

Amortization expense

    21,491  

Total operating expenses

    127,252  

Loss from operations

    (29,993 )

Interest expense, net

    (18,203 )

Foreign currency transaction loss

    (418 )

Other income, net

    221  

Loss before income tax benefit

    (48,393 )

Income tax benefit

    12,137  

Net loss

  $ (36,256 )

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Per Share Data:(2)

       

Net loss per share:

       

Basic

  $ (38.97 )

Diluted

  $ (38.97 )

Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share:

       

Basic

    930,443  

Diluted

    930,443  

Pro forma net loss per share:(2)(3)

       

Basic

  $    

Diluted

  $    

Weighted-average shares used in computing pro forma net loss per share:(3)

       

Basic

       

Diluted

       

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flow Data:

   
 
 

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 9,360  

Net cash used in investing activities

  $ (5,802 )

Net cash provided by financing activities

  $ 1,770  

(1)
Includes stock-based compensation as follows:
 

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 
 

    (in thousands)  
 

Cost of revenue:

       
 

Cost of subscription

  $ 225  
 

Cost of services

     
 

Sales and marketing

    529  
 

Research and development

    239  
 

General and administrative

    1,322  
 

  $ 2,315  
(2)
See Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for an explanation of the method used to calculate our basic and diluted net income (loss) per share and the weighted-average number of shares used in the computation of the per share amounts.

(3)
Pro forma basic and diluted net loss per share and pro forma weighted-average common shares outstanding have been computed to give effect to the issuance by us of                           shares of common stock in this offering at the initial public offering price of $             per share, which is the midpoint of the estimated price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the underwriting discount and estimated offering expenses payable by us and the application of the net proceeds from this offering to repay $              million of outstanding borrowings under our Term Loan Facility as set forth under "Use of Proceeds". This pro forma data is presented for informational purposes only and does not purport to represent what our net loss or net loss per share actually would have been had the offering and use of proceeds therefrom occurred on January 1, 2018 or to project our net loss or net loss per share for any future period.

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    As of
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:

       

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 39,240  

Working capital(1)

  $ (27,230 )

Total assets

  $ 853,384  

Deferred revenue

  $ 100,662  

Debt(2)

  $ 171,749  

Total liabilities

  $ 320,290  

Total stockholders' equity

  $ 533,094  

(1)
We define working capital as current assets less current liabilities.

(2)
Net of debt issuance costs of $3.3 million as of December 31, 2018.


Non-GAAP Financial Measures

          In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe the non-GAAP measures of non-GAAP Gross Profit and Adjusted EBITDA are useful in evaluating our operating performance. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors because it provides consistency and comparability with past financial performance and assists in comparisons with other companies, some of which use similar non-GAAP information to supplement their GAAP results. The non-GAAP financial information is presented for supplemental informational purposes only, and should not be considered a substitute for financial information presented in accordance with GAAP, and may be different from similarly-titled non-GAAP measures used by other companies. A reconciliation is provided below for each non-GAAP financial measure to the most directly comparable financial measure stated in accordance with GAAP. Investors are encouraged to review the related GAAP financial measures and the reconciliation of these non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures.

Non-GAAP Gross Profit

          Non-GAAP Gross Profit is a supplemental measure of operating performance that is not prepared in accordance with GAAP and that does not represent, and should not be considered as, an alternative to gross profit, as determined in accordance with GAAP. We define Non-GAAP Gross Profit as gross profit, adjusted for stock-based compensation expense and amortization expense.

          We use Non-GAAP Gross Profit to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends and to prepare and approve our annual budget. We believe Non-GAAP Gross Profit is a useful measure to us and to our investors to assist in evaluating our core operating performance because it provides consistency and direct comparability with our past financial performance and between fiscal periods, as the metric eliminates the effects of variability of stock-based compensation expense and amortization of acquired developed technology, which are non-cash expenses that may fluctuate for reasons unrelated to overall operating performance. While the amortization expense of acquired developed technology is excluded from Non-GAAP Gross Profit, the revenue related to acquired developed technology is reflected in Non-GAAP Gross Profit as these assets contribute to our revenue generation.

          Non-GAAP Gross Profit has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Because of these

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limitations, Non-GAAP Gross Profit should not be considered as a replacement for gross profit, as determined by GAAP, or as a measure of our profitability. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using non-GAAP measures only for supplemental purposes.

          A reconciliation of Non-GAAP Gross Profit to gross profit, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, is as follows:

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Gross Profit

  $ 97,259  

Amortization of intangibles

    8,969  

Stock-based compensation

    225  

Non-GAAP Gross Profit

  $ 106,453  

Adjusted EBITDA

          Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure of operating performance that is not prepared in accordance with GAAP and that does not represent, and should not be considered as, an alternative to net loss, as determined in accordance with GAAP. We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss, adjusted for interest expense, net, benefit for income taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation, acquisition related expense, and foreign currency transaction loss.

          We use Adjusted EBITDA to understand and evaluate our core operating performance and trends, to prepare and approve our annual budget, and to develop short-term and long-term operating plans. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA facilitates comparison of our operating performance on a consistent basis between periods, and when viewed in combination with our results prepared in accordance with GAAP, helps provide a broader picture of factors and trends affecting our results of operations.

          Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool, and you should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Because of these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as a replacement for net loss, as determined by GAAP, or as a measure of our profitability. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using non-GAAP measures only for supplemental purposes.

          A reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, is as follows:

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Net loss

  $ (36,256 )

Interest expense, net

    18,203  

Benefit for income taxes

    (12,137 )

Depreciation and amortization

    33,914  

Stock-based compensation

    2,315  

Acquisition related expense

    158  

Foreign currency transaction loss

    418  

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ 6,615  

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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

          The following discussion and analysis summarizes the significant factors affecting the consolidated operating results, financial condition, liquidity and cash flows of our company as of and for the periods presented below. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. The discussion contains forward-looking statements that are based on the beliefs of management, as well as assumptions made by, and information currently available to, our management. Actual results could differ materially from those discussed in or implied by forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed below and elsewhere in this prospectus, particularly in the sections entitled "Risk Factors" and "Forward-Looking Statements".


Overview

          We are the standard in Apple Enterprise Management, and our cloud software platform is the only vertically-focused Apple infrastructure and security platform of scale in the world. We help organizations, including businesses, hospitals, schools and government agencies, connect, manage and protect Apple products, apps and corporate resources in the cloud without ever having to touch the devices. With Jamf's software, Apple devices can be deployed to employees brand new in the shrink-wrapped box, set up automatically and personalized at first power-on and administered continuously throughout the life of the device.

          Jamf was founded in 2002, around the same time that Apple was leading an industry transformation. Apple transformed the way people access and utilize technology through its focus on creating a superior consumer experience. With the release of revolutionary products like the Mac, iPod, iPhone, and iPad, Apple built the world's most valuable brand and became ubiquitous in everyday life.

          We have built our company through a singular focus on being the primary solution for Apple in the enterprise. Through our long-standing relationship with Apple, we have accumulated significant Apple technical experience and expertise that give us the ability to fully and quickly leverage and extend the capabilities of Apple products, OSs, and services. This expertise enables us to fully support new innovations and OS releases the moment they are made available by Apple. This focus has allowed us to create a best-in-class user experience for Apple in the enterprise and grow to approximately 34,000 customers in over 100 countries and territories as of September 30, 2019.

          We sell our SaaS solutions via a subscription model, through a direct sales force, online and indirectly via our channel partners, including Apple. Our multi-dimensional go-to-market model and cloud-deployed offering enable us to reach all organizations around the world, large and small, with our software solutions. As a result, we continue to see rapid growth and expansion of our customer base as Apple continues to gain momentum in the enterprise.

          As of December 31, 2018, our ARR was $142 million and for the year ended December 31, 2018, our total revenue was $146.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, our net loss was $(36.3) million, our net cash provided by operating activities was $9.4 million and our Adjusted EBITDA was $6.6 million. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure that is not calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. See "Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a definition of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.

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          We have grown our software platform to meet the needs of Apple users in the enterprise as evidenced by the following key milestones.

GRAPHIC


Key Factors Affecting Our Performance

          Our historical financial performance has been, and we expect our financial performance in the future to be, driven by our ability to:

          Attract new customers. Our ability to attract new customers is dependent upon a number of factors, including the effectiveness of our pricing and solutions, the features and pricing of our competitors' offerings, the effectiveness of our marketing efforts, the effectiveness of our channel partners in selling, marketing and deploying our software solutions and the growth of the market for Apple devices and services for small-to-medium-sized businesses, or SMBs, and enterprises. Sustaining our growth requires continued adoption of our platform by new customers. We intend to continue to invest in building brand awareness as we further penetrate our addressable markets. We intend to expand our customer base by continuing to make significant and targeted investments in our direct sales and marketing to attract new customers and to drive broader awareness of our software solutions. As of September 30, 2019, we had approximately 34,000 customers spanning organizations of a broad range of sizes and industries.

          Expand within our customer base. Our ability to increase revenue within our existing customer base is dependent upon a number of factors, including their satisfaction with our software solutions and support, the features and pricing of our competitors' offerings and our ability to effectively enhance our platform by developing new products and features and addressing additional use cases. Often our customers will begin with a small deployment and then later expand their usage more broadly within the enterprise as they realize the benefits of our platform. We believe that our "land and expand" business model allows us to efficiently increase revenue from our existing customer base. We intend to continue to invest in enhancing awareness of our software solutions, creating additional use cases, and developing more products, features, and functionality, which we believe are important factors to expand usage of our software solutions by our existing customer base. We believe our ability to retain, and expand usage of our software solutions by, our existing customer base is evidenced by our dollar-based net retention rate, which has exceeded 115% as of the end of each of the last seven fiscal quarters for the trailing twelve months.

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          Sustain product innovation and technology leadership. Our success is dependent on our ability to sustain product innovation and technology leadership in order to maintain our competitive advantage. We believe that we have built a highly differentiated platform and we intend to further extend the adoption of our platform through additional innovation. While sales of subscriptions to our Jamf Pro product account for most of our revenue, we intend to continue to invest in building additional products, features and functionality that expand our capabilities and facilitate the extension of our platform to new use cases. Our future success is dependent on our ability to successfully develop, market and sell additional products to both new and existing customers. For example, in 2018, we introduced Jamf Connect to provide users with a seamless connection to corporate resources using a single identity and in 2019 we introduced Jamf Protect to extend Apple's security and privacy model to enterprise teams by creating unprecedented visibility into MacOS fleets through customized remote monitoring and threat detection.

          Continue investment in growth. Our ability to effectively invest for growth is dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to offset anticipated increases in operating expenses with revenue growth, our ability to spend our research and development budget efficiently or effectively on compelling innovation and technologies, our ability to accurately predict costs and our ability to maintain our corporate culture as our headcount expands. We plan to continue investing in our business so we can capitalize on our market opportunity. We intend to grow our sales team to target expansion within our midmarket and enterprise customers and to attract new customers. We expect to continue to make focused investments in marketing to drive brand awareness and enhance the effectiveness of our customer acquisition model. We also intend to continue to add headcount to our research and development team to develop new and improved products, features and functionality. Although these investments may increase our operating expenses and, as a result, adversely affect our operating results in the near term, we believe they will contribute to our long-term growth.

          Continue international expansion. Our international growth in any region will depend on our ability to effectively implement our business processes and go-to-market strategy, our ability to adapt to market or cultural differences, the general competitive landscape, our ability to invest in our sales and marketing channels, the maturity and growth trajectory of Apple devices and services by region and our brand awareness and perception. We plan to continue making investments in our international sales and marketing channels to take advantage of this market opportunity while refining our go-to-market approach based on local market dynamics. For the year ended December 31, 2018, approximately 20% of our revenue came from customers outside of North America. While we believe global demand for our platform will increase as international market awareness of Jamf grows, our ability to conduct our operations internationally will require considerable management attention and resources and is subject to the particular challenges of supporting a growing business in an environment of multiple languages, cultures, customs, legal and regulatory systems (including with respect to data transfer and privacy), alternative dispute systems and commercial markets. In addition, global demand for our platform and the growth of our international operations is dependent upon the rate of market adoption of Apple products in international markets.

          Enhance our offerings via our partner network. Our success is dependent not only on our independent efforts to innovate, scale and reach more customers directly but also on the success of our partners to continue to gain share in the enterprise. With a focus on the user and being the bridge between critical technologies — with Apple and Microsoft as two examples — we feel we can help other market participants deliver more to enterprise users with the power of Jamf. We will continue to invest in the relationships with our existing, critical partners, nurture and develop new relationships and do so globally. We will continue to invest in developing "plus one" solutions and workflows that help tie our software solutions together with those delivered by others.

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Key Business Metrics

          In addition to our GAAP financial information, we review several operating and financial metrics, including the following key metrics, to evaluate our business, measure our performance, identify trends affecting our business, formulate business plans, and make strategic decisions.

Number of Customers

          We believe our ability to grow the number of customers on our software platform provides a key indicator of the growth of our business and our future business opportunities. We define a customer at the end of any particular period as an entity with at least one active subscription or support and maintenance agreement as of the measurement date or that has a reasonable probability of renewal. A single organization with separate subsidiaries, segments, or divisions that use our platform may represent multiple customers, as we treat each entity, subsidiary, segment or division that is invoiced separately as a single customer. In cases where customers subscribe to our platform through our channel partners, each end customer is counted separately. As of December 31, 2018 and September 30, 2019, respectively, we had approximately 18,000 customers and approximately 34,000 customers (with approximately 5,000 of the increase attributable to acquisitions), respectively, spanning organizations of a broad range of sizes and industries.

Annual Recurring Revenue

          ARR represents the annualized value of all subscription and support and maintenance contracts as of the end of the period. ARR mitigates fluctuations due to seasonality, contract term and the sales mix of subscriptions for term-based licenses and SaaS. ARR does not have any standardized meaning and is therefore unlikely to be comparable to similarly titled measures presented by other companies. ARR should be viewed independently of revenue and deferred revenue and is not intended to be combined with or to replace either of those items. ARR is not a forecast and the active contracts at the end of a reporting period used in calculating ARR may or may not be extended or renewed by our customers.

          Our ARR was $142 million as of December 31, 2018.

Dollar-Based Net Retention Rate

          To further illustrate the "land and expand" economics of our customer relationships, we examine the rate at which our customers increase their subscriptions for our software solutions. Our dollar-based net retention rate measures our ability to increase revenue across our existing customer base through expanded use of our software solutions, offset by customers whose subscription contracts with us are not renewed or renew at a lower amount.

          We calculate dollar-based net retention rate as of a period end by starting with the ARR from the cohort of all customers as of 12 months prior to such period end, or Prior Period ARR. We then calculate the ARR from these same customers as of the current period end, or Current Period ARR. Current Period ARR includes any expansion and is net of contraction or attrition over the last 12 months but excludes ARR from new customers in the current period. We then divide the total Current Period ARR by the total Prior Period ARR to arrive at the dollar-based net retention rate.

          Our dollar-based net retention rates have exceeded 115% as of the end of each of the last seven fiscal quarters for the trailing twelve months and are primarily attributable to an expansion of devices. We believe our ability to cross-sell our new solutions to our installed base, particularly Jamf Connect and Jamf Protect, will continue to support our high dollar-based net retention rates.

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          The following table shows our actual dollar-based net retention rate as of the end of each of the last seven fiscal quarters for the trailing twelve months:

 
  Trailing Twelve Months Ended  
 
  March 31,
2018
  June 30,
2018
  September 30,
2018
  December 31,
2018
  March 31,
2019
  June 30,
2019
  September 30,
2019
 

Dollar-Based Net Retention Rate

    120 %   118 %   119 %   117 %   119 %   120 %   118 %

          We have a history of attracting new customers and growing their annual spend with us over time. We accomplish this through expanding our customers' usage of our products and providing new value-added products. Growth may occur based on the volume of users who are able and choose to use Apple devices within an institution, devices being allocated to users who did not previously have devices (such as hospital patients or one-to-one school programs), or by introducing new products that we are able to offer customers. The chart below illustrates the total ARR for the periods presented, with each cohort representing our customers who made their first subscription purchase in the given fiscal year. For example, customers in the 2017 cohort are represented by customers who first purchased our subscription software between January 1st, 2017 and December 31st, 2017. They accounted for $15.7 million in ARR as of December 31, 2017 and grew to $27.0 million in ARR as of December 31, 2019. This represents a 1.7x multiple over two years with a CAGR exceeding 30%.

GRAPHIC


Components of Results of Operations

Revenues

          We recognize revenue under ASC 606. Under ASC 606, we recognize revenue when or as performance obligations are satisfied. See "— Critical Accounting Policies — Revenue Recognition".

          We derive revenue primarily from sales of SaaS subscriptions and support and maintenance, and to a lesser extent, sales of on-premise licenses and services.

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          Subscription.    Subscription revenue consists of sales of SaaS subscriptions and support and maintenance contracts. We sell our software solutions primarily with a one-year contract term. We typically invoice SaaS subscription fees and support and maintenance fees annually in advance and recognize revenue ratably over the term of the applicable agreement, provided that all other revenue recognition criteria have been satisfied. See "— Critical Accounting Policies" for more information. We expect recurring revenues to increase over time as we expand our customer base because sales to new customers are expected to be primarily SaaS subscriptions.

          License.    License revenue consists of revenue from on-premise perpetual licenses and the license portion of on-premise subscriptions of our Jamf Pro product sold primarily to existing customers. We recognize all license revenue upfront, assuming all revenue recognition criteria are satisfied. We expect license revenues to decrease because sales to new customers are primarily cloud based subscription arrangements and therefore reflected in subscription revenue.

          Services.    Services revenues consist primarily of professional services provided to our customers to configure and optimize the use of our software solutions, as well as training services related to the operation of our software solutions. Our services are priced on a fixed fee basis and generally invoiced in advance of the service being delivered. Revenue is recognized as the services are performed. We expect services revenues to decrease as a percentage of total revenue as the demand for our services is not expected to grow at the same rate as the demand for our subscription solutions.

Cost of Revenues

          Cost of subscription.    Cost of subscription revenue consists primarily of employee compensation costs for employees associated with supporting our subscription and support and maintenance arrangements, our customer success function, and third-party hosting fees related to our cloud services. Employee compensation and related costs include cash compensation and benefits to employees and associated overhead costs. We expect cost of subscription revenue to increase in absolute dollars, but to remain relatively consistent as a percentage of subscription revenue, relative to the extent of the growth of our business.

          Cost of services.    Cost of services revenue consists primarily of employee compensation costs directly associated with delivery of professional services and training, costs of third-party integrators and other associated overhead costs. We expect cost of services revenue to increase in absolute dollars relative to the growth of our services business.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

          Gross profit, or revenue less cost of revenue, has been and will continue to be affected by various factors, including the mix of cloud based subscription customers, the costs associated with supporting our cloud solution, the extent to which we expand our customer support team and the extent to which we can increase the efficiency of our technology and infrastructure though technological improvements. We expect our gross profit to increase in absolute dollars, but our gross margin to remain relatively consistent because we expect cost of subscription revenue to increase consistently with the growth in our subscription revenue.

Operating Expenses

          Sales and Marketing.    Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of employee compensation costs, sales commissions, costs of general marketing and promotional activities, travel-related expenses and allocated overhead. Sales commissions earned by our sales force are deferred and amortized over the period of benefit, which is estimated to be 5 years. We expect our

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sales and marketing expenses to increase on an absolute dollar basis as we expand our sales personnel and marketing efforts.

          Research and development.    Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs and allocated overhead. We will continue to invest in innovation so that we can offer our customers new solutions and enhance our existing solutions. See "Business — Research and Development" for more information. We expect such investment to increase on an absolute dollar basis as our business grows.

          General and Administrative.    General and administrative expenses consist primarily of employee compensation costs for corporate personnel, such as those in our executive, human resource, facilities, accounting and finance, legal and compliance, and information technology departments. In addition, general and administrative expenses include acquisition related expenses which primarily consist of third-party expenses, such as legal and accounting fees. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase on a dollar basis as our business grows, particularly as we continue to invest in technology infrastructure and expand our operations globally. Also, following the completion of this offering, we expect to incur additional general and administrative expenses as a result of operating as a public company, including costs to comply with the rules and regulations applicable to companies listed on a national securities exchange, costs related to compliance and reporting obligations pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC, and increased expenses for insurance, investor relations and accounting expenses.

          Amortization.    Amortization expense primarily consists of amortization of acquired trademarks, customer relationships and developed technology.

Interest Expense, Net

          Interest expense, net consists primarily of interest payments on our outstanding borrowings under our Credit Facilities as well as the amortization of associated deferred financing costs. See "— Liquidity and Capital Resources — Credit Facilities".

Foreign Currency Transaction Loss

          Our reporting currency is the U.S. dollar. The functional currency of all our international operations is the U.S. dollar. The assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of our foreign operations are remeasured in accordance with ASC Topic 830, Foreign Currency Matters. Remeasurement adjustments are recorded as foreign currency transaction gains (losses) in the consolidated statement of operations.

Income Tax Benefit

          Income tax benefit consists primarily of income taxes related to U.S. federal and state income taxes and income taxes in foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct business.

Other Income

          Other income consists primarily of sublease rental income.

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Results of Operations

          The following table sets forth our consolidated statement of operations data for the period indicated:

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)     (as a percentage
of total revenue)
 

Consolidated Statement of Income Data:

             

Revenue:

             

Subscription

  $ 100,350     68 %

Services

    20,206     14 %

License

    26,006     18 %

Total revenue

    146,562     100 %

Cost of revenue:

             

Cost of subscription(1) (exclusive of amortization expense shown below)

    24,088     16 %

Cost of services(1) (exclusive of amortization expense shown below)

    16,246     11 %

Amortization expense

    8,969     6 %

Total cost of revenue

    49,303     34 %

Gross profit

    97,259     66 %

Operating expenses:

             

Sales and marketing(1)

    51,976     35 %

Research and development(1)

    31,515     22 %

General and administrative(1)

    22,270     15 %

Amortization expense

    21,491     15 %

Total operating expenses

    127,252     87 %

Loss from operations

    (29,993 )   (20 )%

Interest expense, net

    (18,203 )   (12 )%

Foreign currency transaction loss

    (418 )   (0 )%

Other income, net

    221     0 %

Loss before income tax benefit

    (48,393 )   (33 )%

Income tax benefit

    12,137     8 %

Net loss

  $ (36,256 )   (25 )%

(1)
Includes stock-based compensation as follows:

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)
    (as a percentage
of total revenue)
 

Cost of revenue:

             

Cost of subscription

  $ 225     0 %

Cost of services

        NM  

Sales and marketing

    529     0 %

Research and development

    239     0 %

General and administrative

    1,322     1 %

  $ 2,315     2 %

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Results of Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2018

Revenue

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Revenue:

       

Subscription

  $ 100,350  

Services

    20,206  

License

    26,006  

Total revenue

  $ 146,562  

          Total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $146.6 million. Of the $146.6 million, subscription revenue accounted for $100.4 million, services revenue accounted for $20.2 million and license revenue accounted for $26.0 million. Our total revenue was driven primarily by subscription and support and maintenance arrangements.

Cost of Revenue

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Cost of revenue:

       

Cost of subscription

  $ 24,088  

Cost of services

    16,246  

Amortization expense

    8,969  

Total cost of revenue

  $ 49,303  

          Total cost of revenue was $49.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. Of the $49.3 million, cost of subscription revenue accounted for $24.1 million, cost of services revenue accounted for $16.2 million, and amortization expense accounted for $9.0 million. Our total cost of revenue was primarily driven by employee compensations costs and third-party hosting fees.

Operating Expenses

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Operating expenses:

       

Sales and marketing

  $ 51,976  

Research and development

    31,515  

General and administrative

    22,270  

Amortization expense

    21,491  

Total operating expenses

  $ 127,252  

          Sales and Marketing.    Sales and marketing expenses were $52.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. These were driven primarily by employee compensation and marketing activities.

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          Research and Development.    Research and development expenses were $31.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. These were driven primarily by employee compensation.

          General and Administrative.    General and administrative expenses were $22.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. These were driven primarily by employee compensation expenses, and corporate overhead costs.

          Amortization Expense.    Amortization expense was $21.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Interest Expense, Net

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Interest expense, net

  $ 18,203  

          Interest expense, net was $18.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This was driven primarily by interest payments on our outstanding borrowings under our Credit Facilities.

Foreign Currency Transaction Loss

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Foreign currency transaction loss

  $ 418  

          Foreign currency transaction loss was $0.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This was driven primarily by remeasuring international accounts and activities to the U.S. dollar.

Other Income, Net

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Other income, net

  $ 221  

          Other income, net was $0.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. This was driven primarily by sublease rental income.

Income Tax Benefit

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Income tax benefit

  $ 12,137  

          Income tax benefit was $12.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

General

          As of December 31, 2018, our principal sources of liquidity were cash and cash equivalents totaling $39.2 million, which was held for working capital purposes, as well as the available balance of our Revolving Credit Facility, described further below. As of December 31, 2018, our cash equivalents were comprised of money market funds. During the year ended December 31, 2018, our positive cash flows from operations has enabled us to make continued investments in supporting the growth of our business. Following the completion of this offering, we expect that our operating cash flows, in addition to our cash and cash equivalents, will enable us to continue to make such investments in the future. We expect our operating cash flows to further improve as we increase our operational efficiency and experience economies of scale.

          We have financed our operations primarily through cash received from operations and debt financing. We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents, our Revolving Credit Facility and cash provided by sales of our software solutions and services will be sufficient to meet our working capital and capital expenditure needs for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements will depend on many factors including our obligation to repay any remaining balance under our Term Loan Facility, our growth rate, the timing and extent of spending to support development efforts, the expansion of sales and marketing activities, the introduction of new and enhanced products and services offerings, the continuing market acceptance of our products. In the future, we may enter into arrangements to acquire or invest in complementary businesses, services and technologies, including intellectual property rights.

          We may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. In the event that additional financing is required from outside sources, we may not be able to raise it on terms acceptable to us or at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital or generate cash flows necessary to expand our operations and invest in new technologies, this could reduce our ability to compete successfully and harm our results of operations.

          A majority of our customers pay in advance for subscriptions and support and maintenance contracts, a portion of which is recorded as deferred revenue. Deferred revenue consists of the unearned portion of billed fees for our subscriptions, which is later recognized as revenue in accordance with our revenue recognition policy. As of December 31, 2018, we had deferred revenue of $100.7 million, of which $86.2 million was recorded as a current liability and is expected to be recorded as revenue in the next 12 months, provided all other revenue recognition criteria have been met.

Credit Facilities

          On November 13, 2017, we entered into a Credit Agreement with a syndicate of lenders, comprised of the $175.0 million Term Loan Facility and the $15.0 million Revolving Credit Facility, in each case with a maturity date of November 13, 2022. Pursuant to the Amendment Agreement No. 1, dated as of January 30, 2019, or the Credit Agreement Amendment, the Term Loan Facility was increased to $205.0 million. As of December 31, 2018, we had $175.0 million and no borrowings outstanding under our Term Loan Facility and Revolving Credit Facility, respectively, and $1.0 million of letters of credit outstanding under our Revolving Credit Facility.

          Borrowings under the Credit Agreement bear interest at a rate per annum, at the borrower's option, equal to an applicable margin, plus, (a) for alternate base rate borrowings, the highest of (i) the rate last quoted by The Wall Street Journal as the "prime rate" in the United States, (ii) the Federal Funds Rate in effect on such day plus 1/2 of 1.00% and (iii) the Adjusted LIBO Rate for a one month interest period on such day plus 1.00% and (b) for eurodollar borrowings, the Adjusted

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LIBO Rate determined by the greater of (i) the LIBO Rate for the relevant interest period divided by 1 minus the statutory reserves (if any) and (ii) 1.00%.

          The applicable margin for borrowings under the Credit Agreement is (a)(1) prior to June 30, 2020 and (2) on or after June 30, 2020 (so long as the total leverage ratio is greater than 6.00 to 1.00), (i) 7.00% for alternate base rate borrowings and (ii) 8.00% for eurodollar borrowings and (b) on or after June 30, 2020 (so long as the total leverage ratio is less than or equal to 6.00 to 1.00), subject to step downs to (i) 5.50% for alternate base rate borrowings and (ii) 6.50% for eurodollar borrowings. The total leverage ratio is determined in accordance with the terms of the Credit Agreement.

          The contract interest rate on the Term Loan Facility was 10.61% per annum as of December 31, 2018. The effective interest rate was 11.19% per annum as of December 31, 2018. The effective interest rate was higher than the contract rate due to amortization of debt issuance costs related to the Term Loan Facility. The Term Loan Facility does not require periodic principal payments.

          As of December 31, 2018, the interest rate for the Revolving Credit Facility was 8% per annum. As of December 31, 2018, the Company has used $1.0 million as collateral for office space letters of credit, which is an off-balance sheet arrangement. The borrower is also required to pay a commitment fee on the average daily undrawn portion of the Revolving Credit Facility of 0.50% per annum, and a letter of credit participation fee equal to the applicable margin for eurodollar revolving loans on the actual daily amount of the letter of credit exposure.

          The Credit Agreement contains customary representations and warranties, affirmative covenants, reporting obligations, negative covenants and events of default. See "Description of Certain Indebtedness".

Cash Flows

          The following table presents a summary of our consolidated cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2018.

    Year Ended
December 31,
2018
 

    (in thousands)  

Net cash provided by operating activities

  $ 9,360  

Net cash used in investing activities

    (5,802 )

Net cash provided by financing activities

    1,770  

Net increase in cash and cash equivalents

    5,328  

Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period

    33,912  

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period

  $ 39,240  

Cash paid for interest

  $ 17,835  

Cash paid for purchases of equipment and leasehold improvements

  $ 2,909  

Operating Activities

          For the year ended December 31, 2018, net cash provided by operating activities was $9.4 million, reflecting our net loss of $36.3 million, adjusted for non-cash charges of $27.7 million and net cash inflows of $18.0 million provided by changes in our operating assets and liabilities. Non-cash charges primarily consisted of share-based compensation and depreciation and amortization of property and equipment and intangible assets. The primary drivers of the changes

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in operating assets and liabilities related to a $32.5 million increase in deferred revenue partially offset by a $13.2 million increase in deferred contract costs.

Investing Activities

          Net cash used in investing activities was $5.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2018. The decrease is attributable to the acquisition of Orchard & Grove for $2.1 million in cash and the purchases of $2.9 million in equipment and leasehold improvements to support additional office space and headcount.

Financing Activities

          Net cash provided by financing activities of $1.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2018, was due to the proceeds from the exercise of stock options.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

          Our principal commitments consist of obligations under operating leases for office space and repayments of long-term debt and the respective interest expense.

          The following table sets forth the amounts of our significant contractual obligations and commitments with definitive payment terms as of December 31, 2018:

    Payments due by Period
 

    Total     Less than
1 Year
    1 - 3 years     3 - 5 Years     More than
5 years
 

    (in thousands)  

Term loan — principal

  $ 175,000   $   $   $ 175,000   $  

Term loan — interest(1)

    71,829     18,568     37,135     16,126      

Revolving credit facility

                     

Operating lease obligations

    28,266     3,481     7,119     6,289     11,377  

Other obligations(2)

    12,546     6,129     6,417          

Total

  $ 287,641   $ 28,178   $ 50,671   $ 197,415   $ 11,377  

(1)
Interest payments that relate to the Term Loan Facility are calculated and estimated for the periods presented based on the expected principal balance for each period and the effective interest rate at December 31, 2018 of 10.61%, given that our debt is at floating interest rates. Excluded from these payments is the amortization of debt issuance costs related to our indebtedness.

(2)
Other obligations represent a noncancelable minimum annual commitment with AWS of $12.5 million for hosting services to be provided until November 2020.

          The table above does not include potential earn-out consideration payable in connection with our 2019 acquisition of Digita Security. In connection with that acquisition, we agreed to an earn-out arrangement providing for up to $15 million payable to the seller, subject to meeting certain conditions.

Indemnification Agreements

          In the ordinary course of business, we enter into agreements of varying scope and terms pursuant to which we agree to indemnify customers, channel partners, vendors, lessors, business partners and other parties with respect to certain matters, including, but not limited to, losses arising out of the breach of such agreements, services to be provided by us or from intellectual

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property infringement, misappropriation or other violation claims made by third parties. See "Risk Factors — We have indemnity provisions under our contracts with our customers, channel partners and other third parties, which could have a material adverse effect on our business". In addition, in connection with the completion of this offering we intend to enter into indemnification agreements with our directors and certain officers and employees that will require us, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors, officers or employees. No demands have been made upon us to provide indemnification under such agreements and there are no claims that we are aware of that could have a material effect on our consolidated balance sheets, consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss, or consolidated statements of cash flows.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

          As of December 31, 2018, we did not have any relationships with unconsolidated organizations or financial partnerships, such as structure finance or special purpose entities, which would have been established for the purpose of facilitating off-balance sheet arrangements or for other contractually narrow or limited purposes.

JOBS Act

          We qualify as an "emerging growth company" pursuant to the provisions of the JOBS Act. For as long as we are an "emerging growth company", we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not "emerging growth companies", including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, exemptions from the requirements of holding advisory "say-on-pay" votes on executive compensation and shareholder advisory votes on golden parachute compensation.

          The JOBS Act also permits an emerging growth company like us to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have elected to use the extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will not be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that comply with such new or revised accounting standards on a non-delayed basis.

Critical Accounting Policies

          Our discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The preparation of our financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses. We base our estimates on experience and other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances, and we evaluate these estimates on an ongoing basis. Actual results may differ from those estimates, impacting our reported results of operations and financial condition.

          Our critical accounting policies are those that materially affect our consolidated financial statements and involve difficult, subjective or complex judgments by management. A thorough understanding of these critical accounting policies is essential when reviewing our consolidated financial statements. We believe that the critical accounting policies listed below are the most difficult management decisions as they involve the use of significant estimates and assumptions as described above. Refer to "Note 2 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for more detailed information regarding our critical accounting policies.

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Revenue Recognition

          We derive revenue from the sales of software licenses and maintenance, hosted software and related professional services. We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC 606, which provides a five-step model for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers as follows:

          Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment.

          When our contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations, the contract transaction price is allocated on a relative stand-alone selling price, or SSP, basis to each performance obligation. The Company typically determines SSP based on observable selling prices of its products and services. In instances where SSP is not directly observable, such as with software licenses that are never sold on a stand-alone basis, SSP is determined using information that may include market conditions and other observable inputs. In addition, for software products where the pricing is also determined to be highly variable or highly uncertain, SSP is established using the residual approach. However, the Company does not currently use the residual approach for any of its performance obligations, as pricing was not determined to be highly variable or highly uncertain. SSP is typically established as ranges and the Company typically has more than one SSP range for individual products and services due to the stratification of those products and services by customer class, channel type, and purchase quantity, among other circumstances.

Stock-Based Compensation

          The Company applies the provisions of ASC 718, Compensation — Stock Compensation in its accounting and reporting for stock-based compensation. ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the income statement based on their fair values. All service-based options outstanding under the Company's option plans have exercise prices equal to the fair value of the Company's stock on the grant date, as determined by an independent third party. The fair value of these options is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Compensation cost for restricted stock units is determined based on the fair market value of the Company's stock at the date of the grant. Stock-based compensation expense is generally recognized over the required service period. Forfeitures are accounted for when they occur. The Company also grants performance-based awards to certain executives that vest upon the achievement of certain company results and the occurrence of a termination event. The terms of the agreement do not specify a performance period for the occurrence of the termination event. The contractual term of the awards is ten years. These options are also referred to as return target options. Since the performance condition relates to a termination event that is a change of control of the Company, and as a change of control cannot be probable until it occurs, no compensation expense will be recorded until a termination event. As there is also a market condition with these options based on a return on equity target, the fair value of the awards is determined using a Monte Carlo simulation.

          Application of these approaches involves the use of estimates, judgment and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective, including those regarding our future expected revenue,

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expenses, cash flows, discount rates, market multiples, the selection of comparable public companies and the probability of future events.

Common Stock Valuation

          Because our common stock is not yet publicly traded, our Board establishes the fair value of the shares of common stock underlying our stock-based awards. These estimates are based in part upon valuations provided by third-party valuation firms.

          As there is no public market for our common stock, our Board exercises reasonable judgment and considers numerous objective and subjective factors to determine the best estimate of the fair value of our common stock in accordance with the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants Practice Guide, Valuation of Privately-Held Company Equity Securities Issued as Compensation, or the AICPA Guide. The factors considered by our Board in estimating the fair value of our common stock include the following:

          In valuing our common stock, our Board determines the value using both the income and the market approach valuation methods. The income approach estimates value based on the expectation of future cash flows that a company will generate. These future cash flows are discounted to their present values using a discount rate based on our weighted average cost of capital, or WACC. To derive our WACC, a cost of equity was developed using the Capital Asset Pricing Model and comparable company betas, and a cost of debt was determined based on our estimated cost of borrowing. The costs of debt and equity were then weighted based on our actual capital structure. The market approach estimates value based on a comparison of our company to comparable public companies in a similar line of business. From the comparable companies, a representative market multiple is determined and subsequently applied to our financial results to estimate our enterprise value. Also, our market approach factors in multiples on recent acquisitions in our industry.

          Application of these approaches involves the use of estimates, judgment and assumptions that are highly complex and subjective, including those regarding our future expected revenue, expenses, cash flows, discount rates, market multiples, the selection of comparable public companies and the probability of future events. Changes in any or all of these estimates and assumptions impact our valuations at each valuation date and may have a material impact on the valuation of our common stock.

          Following this offering, it will not be necessary to determine the fair value of our common stock, as our shares will be traded in the public market.

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Income Taxes

          Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized principally for the expected tax consequences of temporary differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts, using currently enacted tax rates. The measurement of a deferred tax asset is reduced, if necessary, by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. Significant judgment is required in evaluating the need for and magnitude of appropriate valuation allowances. The realization of our deferred tax assets is dependent on generating future taxable income and the reversal of existing temporary differences. Changes in tax laws and assumptions with respect to future taxable income could result in adjustment to these allowances.

          The Company recognizes a tax benefit for uncertain tax positions only if the Company believes it is more likely than not that the position will be upheld on audit based solely on the technical merits of the tax position. The Company evaluates uncertain tax positions after the consideration of all available information.

Goodwill

          Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of net assets acquired in business combinations. The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment in accordance with ASC 350, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, which requires goodwill to be either qualitatively or quantitatively assessed for impairment annually (or more frequently if impairment indicators arise) for each reporting unit. The Company has one reporting unit. The Company performs its annual impairment testing of goodwill as of December 31 of each year and in interim periods if events occur that would indicate that it is more likely than not the fair value of the reporting unit is less than carrying value. If the Company's reporting unit carrying amount exceeds its fair value an impairment charge will be recorded based on that difference. The impairment charge will be limited to the amount of goodwill currently recognized in the Company's single reporting unit. There is inherent subjectivity involved in estimating future cash flows, which can have a material impact on the amount of any potential impairment. Changes in estimates of future cash flows could result in a write-down of the asset in a future period.

Other Intangibles, Net

          Other intangible assets include customer relationships, developed technology, and trademarks acquired in our previous acquisitions, have definite lives, and are amortized over a period ranging from two to twelve years on a straight-line basis. Intangible assets are tested for impairment whenever events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset (asset group) may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of an asset exceeds the estimated undiscounted cash flows generated by the asset. The amount of the impairment loss recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset's carrying value of its fair value. There is inherent subjectivity involved in estimating future cash flows, which can have a material impact on the amount of any potential impairment. Changes in estimates of future cash flows could result in a write-down of the asset in a future period.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

          For a description of our recently adopted accounting pronouncements and recently issued accounting standards not yet adopted, see Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements: "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies — Recent Accounting Pronouncements" appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

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Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

          Market risk represents the risk of loss that may impact our financial position due to adverse changes in financial market prices and rates. Our market risk exposure is primarily a result of exposure due to potential changes in inflation or interest rates. We do not hold financial instruments for trading purposes.

Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

          The functional currencies of our foreign subsidiaries are the respective local currencies. Most of our sales are denominated in U.S. dollars, and therefore our revenue is not currently subject to significant foreign currency risk. Our operating expenses are denominated in the currencies of the countries in which our operations are located, which are primarily in the United States, Poland, and the Netherlands. Our consolidated results of operations and cash flows are, therefore, subject to fluctuations due to changes in foreign currency exchange rates and may be adversely affected in the future due to changes in foreign exchange rates. To date, we have not entered into any hedging arrangements with respect to foreign currency risk or other derivative financial instruments. During the year ended December 31, 2018, a hypothetical 10% change in foreign currency exchange rates applicable to our business would not have had a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Interest Rate Risk

          Our primary market risk exposure is changing Eurodollar-based interest rates. Interest rate risk is highly sensitive due to many factors, including E.U. and U.S. monetary and tax policies, U.S. and international economic factors and other factors beyond our control.

          The contract interest rate on the Term Loan Facility was 10.61% per annum as of December 31, 2018. The effective interest rate was 11.19% per annum as of December 31, 2018. The effective interest rate was higher than the contract rate due to amortization of debt issuance costs related to the Term Loan Facility. The Term Loan Facility does not require periodic principal payments.

          At December 31, 2018, we had total outstanding debt of $175.0 million and no borrowings outstanding under our Term Loan Facility and Revolving Credit Facility, respectively. Based on the amounts outstanding, a 100-basis point increase or decrease in market interest rates over a twelve-month period would result in a change to interest expense of $1.8 million.

          See "— Liquidity and Capital Resources — Credit Facilities" for more information with respect to the calculation of interest rates under our Credit Facilities.

Impact of Inflation

          While inflation may impact our net revenue and costs of revenue, we believe the effects of inflation, if any, on our results of operations and financial condition have not been significant. However, there can be no assurance that our results of operations and financial condition will not be materially impacted by inflation in the future.

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BUSINESS

Our Mission

          Our mission is to help organizations succeed with Apple.

Overview

          We are the standard in Apple Enterprise Management, and our cloud software platform is the only vertically-focused Apple infrastructure and security platform of scale in the world. We help organizations, including businesses, hospitals, schools and government agencies, connect, manage and protect Apple products, apps and corporate resources in the cloud without ever having to touch the devices. With Jamf's software, Apple devices can be deployed to employees brand new in the shrink-wrapped box, set up automatically and personalized at first power-on and administered continuously throughout the life of the device.

          Jamf was founded in 2002, around the same time that Apple was leading an industry transformation. Apple transformed the way people access and utilize technology through its focus on creating a superior consumer experience. With the release of revolutionary products like the Mac, iPod, iPhone, and iPad, Apple built the world's most valuable brand and became ubiquitous in everyday life.

          We believe employees have come to expect the same high-quality Apple user experience at work as they enjoy in their personal lives. This is often not possible as many organizations rely on legacy solutions to administer Apple devices or do not give employees a choice of device. Jamf's software solutions preserve and extend the native Apple experience, allowing employees to use their Apple devices as they do in their personal lives, while retaining their privacy and fulfilling IT's enterprise requirements around deployment, access and security.

          We have built our company through a singular focus on being the primary solution for Apple in the enterprise. Through our long-standing relationship with Apple, we have accumulated significant Apple technical experience and expertise that give us the ability to fully and quickly leverage and extend the capabilities of Apple products, OSs and services. This expertise enables us to fully support new innovations and OS releases the moment they are made available by Apple. This focus has allowed us to create a best-in-class user experience for Apple in the enterprise and grow to approximately 34,000 customers in over 100 countries and territories as of September 30, 2019.

          We sell our SaaS solutions via a subscription model, through a direct sales force, online and indirectly via our channel partners, including Apple. Our multi-dimensional go-to-market model and cloud-deployed offering enable us to reach all organizations around the world, large and small, with our software solutions. As a result, we continue to see rapid growth and expansion of our customer base as Apple continues to gain momentum in the enterprise. Our customers include many highly recognizable brands and organizations including Apple itself, 8 of the 10 largest companies worldwide (according to Fortune), 7 of the 10 top global technology companies (according to Fortune), 23 of the 25 most valuable brands (according to the Forbes Most Valuable Brands rankings), and 9 of the 10 largest U.S. banks (based on total assets). Additionally, we see opportunities to sell add-on products from our software platform into our current install base in order to provide greater value for our customers. Our focus on customer success and innovation has resulted in a Net Promoter Score that significantly exceeds industry averages. For further discussion on our Net Promoter Score, see "Market and Industry Data".

          Complementing our software platform is Jamf Nation, the world's largest online community of IT professionals focused exclusively on Apple in the enterprise. This active, grassroots community

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of over 90,000 members serves as a highly-qualified and efficient crowd-sourced Q&A engine for anyone with questions about Apple and Jamf deployments. This community of loyal Jamf supporters selflessly acts as a resource for existing and potential customers and is also an important asset in providing feature feedback and ideas for our product roadmap.

          As of December 31, 2018, our ARR was $142 million and for the year ended December 31, 2018, our total revenue was $146.6 million. For the year ended December 31, 2018, our net loss was $(36.3) million, our net cash provided by operating activities was $9.4 million and our Adjusted EBITDA was $6.6 million. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure that is not calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. See "Selected Consolidated Financial Data — Non-GAAP Financial Measures" for a definition of Adjusted EBITDA and a reconciliation to its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.


Industry Background

          Key trends impacting how enterprises use and manage technology to engage employees and drive productivity include:

Apple's democratization of technology

          Apple is ubiquitous. It is the most valuable brand in the world according to Forbes, and in 2018, it became the first company to cross a market capitalization of US$1 trillion. Apple's success has been driven by delivering the best user experience to its customers through its innovative combination of hardware, software and cloud services. It has transformed the technology landscape by placing the user first and designing everything around maximizing the Apple user experience.

          In the 1990s and early 2000s, endpoint technology was dominated by Microsoft Windows, particularly in the workplace. Many enterprises prioritized standardization over user experience in order to facilitate the deployment, security and management of massive numbers of Windows PCs. Employees were not typically given a choice in their devices. In the 2000s, Apple introduced a series of revolutionary products that transformed how the world interacts with technology. Apple released the iPod in 2001, followed by the iPhone in 2007 and the iPad in 2010. These products, which utilized Apple iOS (Apple's proprietary mobile OS), or iOS, shared a design element that placed the user first. The rapid rise in popularity of iOS devices, combined with the proliferation of web-based applications, created a 'halo effect', leading to a resurgence of Apple's Mac computer. These devices empowered users to easily leverage powerful technology regardless of their technical expertise. Apple's consumer-focused technology provided a significantly more capable, intuitive and faster experience than the technology many employees previously had in the workplace.

          Apple's focus on the user experience has transformed employees' expectations for technology overall. Employees expect a simple, intuitive, seamless experience that fosters creativity, productivity and collaboration. Apple currently offers an entire ecosystem of desktops, laptops, tablets, phones and wearable devices designed to interoperate seamlessly at home, at work and everywhere in-between. This has made Apple the leading technology brand overall and for millennials according to a 2019 brand intimacy study by MBLM.

The consumerization of IT

          The consumerization of IT refers to the migration of software and hardware products originally designed for personal use into the enterprise. Today, employees are often less inclined to draw a line between work and personal technology and commonly prefer not to settle for enterprise solutions that are harder to use than what they have at home. In response to the consumerization of IT movement, enterprises are transforming digitally to create a more engaged workforce, offering

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employees consumer-like tools and choice of technology. As the competition for talent escalates, we believe technology will play a central role in either improving or degrading the employee experience. Empowering employees to use their preferred devices is important to attract, engage and retain productive employees.

          Rapidly evolving workplace demographics are also accelerating the consumerization of IT. Millennials currently represent the largest segment of the U.S. workforce, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center. In addition, a 2014 study by the Brookings Institute predicted that millennials will make up 75% of the U.S. workforce by 2025. Millennials are the first digitally-native generation that has grown up with broadband, smartphones, tablets, laptops and a massive library of apps through which they interact with the world and each other. Millennials demand more from their enterprise IT organizations. They expect to work from anywhere at any time. They expect to be able to collaborate instantly. They expect to have a choice in the technology they use.

          This trend is expected to continue as younger generations enter the workforce and workplace technology continues to directly impact employment decision-making. In a 2019 survey conducted by Vanson Bourne and commissioned by us, approximately 70% of surveyed college students in five countries said they would be more likely to choose or stay at an organization that offers a choice in work computer, and if upfront cost was not a consideration, 71% said they would either use or would like to use a Mac computer.

          Consumerization of IT has been one of the most significant trends impacting enterprise IT over the past decade. This trend is exemplified by Apple's iPhone, introduced in 2007. The iPhone was quickly preferred by many employees for its superior user experience compared to the corporate issued mobile phones controlled by enterprise IT departments. Mass consumer adoption of the iPhone pushed organizations to develop corporate policies that support the use of personal devices for work. As a result, Apple — the ultimate consumer technology company — has become critically important to enterprise IT organizations.

Apple's momentum in enterprise IT

          Fueled by Apple's popularity and the consumerization of IT, Apple devices have gained widespread acceptance across the enterprise, from the executive suite to new hires. As a result, Apple market share in the enterprise has grown significantly. According to Apple CEO Tim Cook, Apple is now in every Fortune 500 company, and "eight in ten companies are writing custom apps for their enterprise". Apple's enterprise revenue, disclosed as $25 billion in 2015, is estimated to have grown to over $40 billion in 2019 according to Atherton Research. Apple's commitment to the enterprise has expanded through partnerships with enterprise giants such as Accenture, Cisco, Deloitte, General Electric, IBM, Salesforce and SAP.

          Evidence of this momentum is further supported by Statcounter, an organization that aggregates data based on web traffic. According to Statcounter, Apple OSs comprised 21% of global web traffic (both business and consumer) in September 2019, up from 4% in January 2009. Apple's gains in the US have been even more significant, with Apple OSs now representing over 40% of web traffic in September 2019, compared to 33% for Microsoft and 24% for Google. Over that same period, the market share of Microsoft has declined from 92% to 33%.

          The increased use of mobile devices to access the internet is largely responsible for the decline in market share of Windows over the past decade. Over this same decade, however, the Mac computer has grown in popularity and market share, further demonstrating that Apple's increased use is not limited to iOS devices. While the Mac computer was once primarily associated with creative or artistic activities, it now represents a growing share of computers within the enterprise. As evidence of this, a recent IDC survey of U.S.-based commercial IT decision makers indicates that Mac represents 11% of their installed notebooks today and is expected to grow to

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14% within two years. The same IDC survey shows that 88% of current Mac enterprise customers expect their Mac fleet to grow in the next two years. The IDC survey also found growth amongst current customers is likely due to Apple brand loyalty, where four times as many organizations indicate they will "stick with" the Apple brand in the future when compared to other notebook brands (Dell, HP, and Lenovo). In Windows-based enterprise environments, Apple devices are typically deployed alongside an array of Windows and other devices and operate with Microsoft enterprise solutions. Finally, an additional driver of Mac growth is the end-of-life of Windows 7 in January 2020. Enterprise IT decision makers who participated in the IDC survey expect 13% of their current Windows 7 fleet to be replaced with Mac.

          Given the expectations of both current and future employees, offering employees a choice in technology is becoming imperative for many enterprises. When given a choice, more than 70% of employees surveyed worldwide would choose Mac over PC and iOS over Android, according to a 2018 survey conducted by us. Considering IDC's estimate of current Mac enterprise penetration, we believe there is significant opportunity to fill the gap between how many employees want a Mac and how many currently use one.

The limitations of legacy enterprise solutions

          Legacy solutions do not deliver the full Apple user experience because they are either outdated, overly Windows-centric or treat all devices the same across operating systems. In particular, cross-platform solutions that treat devices the same tend to rely on the lowest common denominator technology that is shared across the relevant ecosystems. Apple, Microsoft and Google have each introduced device-specific cloud services to automate enterprise IT processes. Fully embracing these cloud services demands specific focus on the respective ecosystem. Legacy solutions do not leverage the native capabilities of Apple and do not deliver the full Apple experience across several key areas, including the following:

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          For enterprise Apple deployments, the limitations of legacy solutions all add up to higher operational and support costs, greater security vulnerability, lower productivity and a degraded user experience. While Apple devices may have higher upfront costs, implementing the full Apple experience results in higher productivity and lower total cost of ownership. Realizing these potential benefits requires an enterprise software solution specifically built for the Apple ecosystem.


Our Solution

          We are the standard in Apple Enterprise Management, and our cloud software platform is the only vertically-focused Apple infrastructure and security platform of scale in the world. Our SaaS solutions provide a cloud-based platform for full lifecycle enterprise IT management of Apple devices. We help organizations, including businesses, hospitals, schools and government agencies, connect, manage and protect Apple products, apps and corporate resources in the cloud without ever having to touch the devices. Our solutions are purpose-built to provide both technical and non-technical IT personnel with a single software platform to administer their end-users' Apple devices, while preserving the legendary Apple experience end-users have come to expect. We believe that our success is born out of a singular focus on Apple and our commitment to optimizing the end-to-end user experience. As of September 30, 2019, we had approximately 34,000 customers in more than 100 countries and territories.

          We believe employees have come to expect the same high-quality Apple user experience at work as they enjoy in their personal lives. This is often not possible as many organizations rely on legacy solutions to administer Apple devices or do not give employees a choice of device. Our software solutions preserve and extend the native Apple experience, allowing employees to use their Apple devices as they do in their personal lives, while retaining their privacy and fulfilling IT's

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enterprise requirements around deployment, access and security. Our software platform provides the following key benefits:

          Our software platform provides value to both end-users and IT departments. Users receive the legendary Apple experience they have come to expect, and IT departments are able to empower

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employees, enhance productivity and lower total cost of ownership. According to an October 2019 Apple-commissioned study conducted by Forrester Consulting, The Total Economic Impact Of Mac In The Enterprise, a Mac in the enterprise results in $678 cost savings per device versus a comparable PC (when considering three-year hardware, software, support and operational costs), a 20% improvement in employee retention and a 5% increase in sales performance for sales employees. A Mac also results in 48 hours of increased productivity per employee over three years. These metrics result in a payback period of less than 6 months for a Mac.

          Furthermore, research by Hobson & Company commissioned by us consisting of 15 interviews with Jamf customers found benefits from simplifying IT management, reducing the time spent provisioning devices and the time spent managing apps by 80% and 90%, respectively. Additionally, that research found Jamf improved end-user experience, reducing end-user productivity loss due to technical problems by 60% and volume of helpdesk tickets by 15%. Jamf also helped mitigate risk by reducing the time IT spent creating inventory reports and time spent managing policy and settings changes by 90% and 65%, respectively. Overall, Hobson & Company found that a typical organization could expect a 217% five year return on investment and a 5.8 month payback period when using Jamf.


Our Relationship with Apple

          Jamf was founded in 2002 with the sole mission of helping organizations succeed with Apple, making it the first Apple-focused device management solution. Today, we have become the largest infrastructure and software platform built specifically for enterprise deployments of the Apple ecosystem. Our relationship with Apple has endured and grown to be multi-faceted over the past 17 years.

          To continuously offer a software solution built specifically for Apple, we have always worked closely with Apple's worldwide developer relations organization in an effort to support all new Apple innovations the moment their hardware and software is released. Additionally, throughout the course of our relationship, Jamf and Apple have formalized several contractual agreements:

          Each of these contractual relationships continue to this day and span all enterprise technology across the Apple ecosystem, including Mac, iPad, iPhone and Apple TV. In addition to these contractual relationships, Apple and Jamf personnel frequently join forces to influence and collaborate as we work with customers, helping them succeed with Apple.


Market Opportunity

          We believe our solution addresses a large and growing market covering the use of Apple technology in the enterprise. According to Frost & Sullivan, the global total addressable market for Apple Enterprise Management is estimated to be $10.3 billion in 2019 and is expected to grow at a

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CAGR of 17.8% to $23.4 billion by the end of 2024. This market represents Apple mobile phones (iPhones), tablets (iPads), laptop and desktop computers (Macs), media streaming devices (Apple TVs) and portable media players (iPods) present in education and business environments. Frost & Sullivan includes both devices purchased and provided by enterprises as well as BYODs owned by end-users that may require device management to provide access to resources or services from the enterprises.

          We believe our potential market opportunity could expand further as Apple may make additional devices available for enterprise management, such as the Apple Watch. Our opportunity may also expand further as we develop future solutions which provide value to enterprises managing their Apple ecosystem.


Our Strengths

          The following are key strengths which contribute directly to our ability to create value for customers, employees, partners and stockholders:

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Our Growth Strategy

          We help organizations succeed with Apple by connecting the Apple experience with the needs of the enterprise. By preserving and enhancing the Apple experience in an enterprise context, we believe we can drive our growth within the current Apple ecosystem as well as fuel further Apple

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penetration in enterprises — which will extend our opportunity. The key elements of our growth strategy include:

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Our Products

          We provide industry-leading software solutions that help empower users with Mac, iPad, iPhone and Apple TV. We deploy our solutions through five main products:

GRAPHIC

Jamf Pro

          Jamf Pro offers a robust Apple ecosystem management software solution for complex IT environments, serving both commercial businesses and educational institutions. Since its introduction in 2002, Jamf Pro has been our flagship product, serving the largest portion of Jamf's customer base.

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          Key capabilities of Jamf Pro include:

Jamf Now

          Launched in 2015, Jamf Now is an intuitive, pay-as-you-go Apple device management software solution for SMBs. Jamf Now prioritizes simplicity through a design that is targeted for organizations with limited or no IT resources, and it can be adopted by such organizations without engaging Jamf sales, training, or services personnel. Jamf Now allows customers to set up their own accounts to enroll their Apple devices and immediately benefit regardless of any prior experience with Jamf. Jamf Now facilitates the consistent configuration of devices remotely, provides a 360-degree view of inventory and remotely enforces passcodes, encryption, installed software and locking or wiping of Apple devices.

Jamf School

          Jamf School is a purpose-built software solution for educators and is supported by apps that empower teachers to create an active and personal learning environment. We have a long and successful presence in the education market, dating back to the early 2000s, and we introduced Jamf School in early 2019 following the acquisition of ZuluDesk. Launching Jamf School significantly increased our value in the classroom and allows us to further empower teachers, students, and even parents.

          Teachers using Jamf School are able to quickly and easily control all Apple devices in their classroom, which ultimately aids the focus of students. Teachers design lesson plans leveraging content from Apple's App Store and are able to easily deploy these lessons to students. Students can gain automatic access to subject-specific materials, while unrelated or irrelevant content is hidden to avoid distraction.

          With Jamf School, parents can use their personal iPhones to govern the access children have when using their school-issued iPads at home. Jamf School transforms processes that once required IT involvement into dynamic interactions that put the power in the hands of the people who have the greatest impact on meeting each student's learning needs.

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Jamf Connect

          Jamf Connect, launched in 2018, gives users the ability to provision their new Apple devices by simply entering their cloud identity the first time the device is powered on. The Apple account is then automatically set up, synchronized, and used to grant rights on the device itself, providing immediate value to the user. Jamf Connect transforms how users connect to their corporate identity and therefore provides users with a seamless connection to corporate resources.

          Jamf Connect gives IT administrators the ability to monitor all company Apple devices and control who is accessing them, providing comfort that both the device and corporate information are protected. Jamf Connect substantially improves the user experience by reducing IT help desk tickets for password resets. Additionally, IT administrators are able to service each device using their cloud identity without requiring a separate admin account on the device, which is a management headache, security vulnerability and a user experience hazard.

Jamf Protect

          Jamf Protect, launched in 2019, creates customized telemetry and detections that give enterprise security teams unprecedented visibility into their Macs, extending Apple's security and privacy model to the enterprise while upholding the Apple user experience.

          Based on historical needs, most endpoint security products have been designed for Windows and ported to Apple environments only when necessary. Jamf Protect differs from these products and was specifically designed to protect a customer's fleet of Mac computers.

          As market share for the Mac computer has grown in the enterprise, it is no longer sufficient to protect these devices with a solution designed for a different platform.

          Capabilities of Jamf Protect include:


Our Technology

          Our software platform was purpose-built to help organizations succeed with Apple, ensuring the highest standards for security and performance while preserving the Apple user experience. Our platform is built on the following core tenets:

Optimized for cloud

          We build products that provide Apple-focused device management, identity and access management and endpoint protection solutions optimized for cloud environments. Our products are built on the market-leading cloud platform, or AWS, but are architected for flexibility to utilize other

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cloud platforms. This foundation has enabled us to scale and support millions of devices since our SaaS offering launched in 2012.

Global availability

          Our products are designed to deploy worldwide, using regional AWS servers to deliver the performance required by our customers. We are able to rapidly expand our global cloud footprint as demand for our products grows in new regions.

Scalable and reliable

          Our products are designed to remove customers' worry about availability, scalability and maintenance of the infrastructure that powers their solution. Our customers are responsible for their fleet of Apple devices, while Jamf handles all back-end management and scaling operations at the software layer and on a global basis for infrastructure management. Jamf employees are located worldwide to ensure we are available whenever and wherever our customers need us.

          We are able to quickly provision new capacity and scale operations through automation on top of our cloud software platform. We continually demonstrate the success of our offering by supporting numerous Fortune 500 customers and large-scale education customers even at their most demanding peak periods.

          Our SaaS offerings are designed for reliability with a highly available infrastructure design spanning numerous data centers for all regions in which we have operations. Jamf is built to be "always on" to all of our cloud customers. If infrastructure becomes unavailable for any reason, our offering reroutes traffic to a secondary location to ensure we deliver on our Service Level Agreements. This availability is monitored externally from an outside provider, and Jamf employees are proactively notified if availability is ever impacted.

          Jamf empowers customers to seamlessly upgrade to our latest software. Our software platform streamlines automated backups, upgrades, and enables roll-back if required for any reason. Our extensive experience running distributed systems at scale helps our customers remain focused on meeting their organizational needs.

Enterprise-grade security

          Security is a critical customer requirement and a guiding principle at Jamf. Our customers frequently use our products to manage integral platforms, which informs our approach to security and compliance. We integrate security principles into development processes, test product code and infrastructure for potential security issues, and deploy security technologies. We have access controls to data in our production environments that are strictly assigned, monitored, and audited. To ensure our processes remain innovative and secure, we undergo continuous third-party testing for vulnerabilities within our software architecture. We also engage with a third-party audit firm to perform SOC2 Type II audits of our security program.

Differentiated technology

          While there are many powerful capabilities of our technologies, the following are a few that set us apart from others in the market:

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Sales and Marketing

Sales

          We have a global, multi-faceted go-to-market approach that allows us to efficiently sell to and serve the needs of organizations of varying sizes. By offering a range of products and routes to the market, including through a direct sales force, online and indirectly via our channel partners (including Apple), we can serve many types of organizations across the world.

          Our direct sales force services larger organizations and those with more complex requirements. The direct sales organization is divided into inside and outside sales teams, organized by customer size, and is further segmented with teams focused on acquiring new logos or growing spend in our existing customer base. Our direct sales force is supported by sales development representatives that provide qualified leads as well as other technical resources.

          To complement our direct sales teams, we have a large network of channel partners that resell our products located across the world. These channel partners provide us with expanded market

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coverage and an efficient way to reach smaller or emerging geographies, providing us with additional sales capacity and the ability to be present in more global markets. Approximately 50% of our sales are facilitated via our channel partners.

          One of our notable channel partners is Apple, which, as a channel partner, facilitated approximately 9% of our bookings for the year ended December 31, 2018. Apple education became a Jamf channel partner in 2011, and resells Jamf to K-12 and higher education organizations within the United States. In 2012, Apple expanded its channel relationship by offering Jamf products to businesses through Apple retail, which includes their stores in the U.S. and sales teams that are focused on SMBs. In 2014, we became a member of Apple's Mobility Partner Program that focuses on solution development and effective go-to-market activities. We work closely with these various Apple teams across both sales and marketing to develop close relationships and expand our customer base.

          For smaller businesses or those with less complex requirements, we provide an online self-service e-commerce model that allows organizations to find products best suited for their needs. This provides an efficient way to introduce smaller organizations to Jamf, with an opportunity for the relationship to grow over time.

          Our global, multi-faceted go-to-market approach combined with the ability for customers to easily trial our products has allowed us to build an efficient, high velocity sales model.

Marketing

          A key ingredient to our sales effectiveness and efficiency is our marketing engine. Our global marketing team builds market awareness of Jamf, generates preference and demand for our products, and enables our sales teams and channel partners to efficiently develop business with new and existing customers.

          We focus our marketing strategy on building recognition of the Jamf brand through thought leadership and differentiated messaging that emphasizes the business value of our products. Our efforts include content marketing, social media, search engine optimization, or SEO, events and public and analyst relations. We leverage this brand awareness to acquire new customers and cross-market our software solutions to our existing customer base through global campaigns that integrate digital, social, web, email, customer advocacy and field marketing tactics such as regional customer/prospect conferences. To create maximum impact, these campaigns are created and adapted to serve all geographic regions and routes to market. We then accelerate prospects or customers through the buying journey by enabling our sales team and channel partners with a range of product/solution content, internal tools such as ROI calculators, competitive intelligence and case studies. Finally, we capitalize on the voices of our highly satisfied and loyal customers using a variety of customer advocacy tactics including case studies and videos, software reviews, social amplification, references and referrals.

          The Jamf brand further benefits from Jamf Nation, the world's largest Apple IT online community. With over 90,000 members, Jamf Nation is our active community of Apple IT professionals, including Jamf customers and potential customers, who share ideas and solutions related to their Apple deployments. Jamf Nation's large volume of user-generated content serves as a great source of organic search traffic, introducing prospective customers to the Jamf brand and Jamf products. Complementing Jamf Nation, we host our annual Jamf Nation User Conference, the world's largest enterprise Apple IT administrator conference. With thousands of attendees, publicly streamed keynotes and nearly 100 customer and Jamf-led sessions, we further tap into the power of our passionate customer base and garner significant market attention as the leader in our space.

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Customers

          As of September 30, 2019, we had approximately 34,000 customers across more than 100 countries and territories. Our customers include 8 of the 10 largest companies worldwide (according to Fortune), 7 of the 10 top global technology companies (according to Fortune), 23 of the 25 most valuable brands (according to the Forbes Most Valuable Brand rankings), 9 of the 10 top U.S. banks (based on total assets), 10 of the 10 top global universities (according to U.S. News and World Report), 9 of the 10 most prestigious consulting firms (according to Vault) and 9 of the 10 largest U.S. retailers (according to the National Retail Federation). Our customer base is highly diversified, with no single end customer accounting for more than 1% of annual revenue. We have a highly satisfied customer base, as evidenced by our Net Promoter Score that significantly exceeds industry averages.


Customer Case Studies

IBM

          The Challenge:    In 2015, IBM made a decision to allow their employees (then over 400,000) to choose between a Microsoft or Apple laptop as the primary device they used for work during their next hardware refresh. With about 40% of their workforce working remotely, IBM sought out a solution capable of enabling their global deployment. IBM also needed to consider a solution that would allow their environment to scale, since 73% of employees surveyed said they wanted their next computer to be a Mac. This needed to be achieved while also keeping the total cost of ownership and overall workforce satisfaction central to the project.

          The Solution:    IBM launched the Mac@IBM Program in 2015 and deployed more than 30,000 Mac devices in the first six months using Jamf. As projected, when given device choice during their upgrade cycle, many IBM employees chose Mac. The company now uses Jamf to manage more than 150,000 Mac devices. The deployment of Apple computers has scaled very well and created a positive user experience. Employees receive their Apple computer in the shrink-wrapped box just as they would from the store. Accompanying the computer is a sticky note attached to the outside of the box which directs the user to an internal website providing introductory information and self-help resources as needed. The employee is the first person to power on the computer. This not only removes a large burden on IT, but also gives the employee a sense of control and ownership of the device. In many cases, once the employee first powers on their computer the setup process automatically initiates, and the computer is provisioned specifically for that user. The entire process leverages Jamf to configure corporate settings, establish security policies, deploy applications, and personalize the device to the user's role. Additionally, several optional tools and resources are available to that user by simply launching their internal app store, powered by Jamf's self-service application. Since pairing Jamf with Apple, IBM has delivered favorable results, including:

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SAP

          The Challenge:    SAP is the market leader in enterprise application software, with 77% of the world's transaction revenue touching an SAP system. The company has more than 90,000 employees in over 140 countries. Always looking for ways to improve employee productivity and overall experience, in 2016 they set a goal to offer employees device choice. At the time, just over 10,000 SAP employees had a Mac, and a lack of automation did not allow for a streamlined user experience. SAP sought to create feature parity with the existing Windows environment, without sacrificing the typical Mac experience.

          The Solution:    SAP shifted their focus on how they managed Mac devices and aligned the IT team so it could better support all company-owned Apple devices. SAP also leveraged the Jamf Cloud for content distribution, which allowed all SAP employees to access the corporate network regardless of their location. This change, in addition to SAP Jam, a secure communication platform for the company's Mac-user community, enabled them to relaunch Mac@SAP. These efforts led to a drastic increase in the number of employees who choose Apple. Employees are currently using more than 24,000 Mac devices, and SAP expects to see that number reach 30,000 in 2020.

          In a continued effort to increase the productivity of SAP employees, in 2018 the company decided to shift all of their remaining mobile Apple devices to be managed by Jamf. This decision kicked off the migration of 80,000 iPhone and iPad devices over the course of seven months. SAP reported the migration was simple and successful. They migrated as many as 2,000 devices per day to Jamf without assistance from IT. Employees were very pleased with SAP's renewed focus on Apple. SAP has highlighted the following key benefits of using Jamf for their entire Apple ecosystem:

Rituals

          The Challenge:    Rituals has more than 670 stores in 27 countries around the globe offering luxury skin care, candles, makeup and more. They strive to provide a smarter, more peaceful retail experience. After piloting 20 Mac devices in the fall of 2016, Rituals received positive feedback on ease of use and flexibility and device stability from the end-users. Rituals then decided to transition the entire company's endpoint devices from PC to Mac. During this migration, given the desire to stay current with the latest operating systems on their devices from Apple, Rituals needed to find a solution that could keep their systems productive and up to date.

          The Solution:    Rituals migrated from their old device management solution to Jamf and have since deployed over 1,000 Macs and over 4,000 mobile devices (iPhone, iPad, and iPod). Jamf's SaaS solution provides the solid infrastructure and extensive capabilities Rituals sought for their digital strategy.

          Utilizing Jamf, Rituals manage a distributed fleet of employee Mac and iPhone devices. Each retail store also uses a combination of iPad and iPhone devices to aid efficiency, productivity and elevate the guest experience. These devices are shipped to the stores brand new in shrink-wrap, automatically setting themselves up at power-on without assistance from IT — empowering Rituals to rapidly launch new stores anywhere in the world. While the iPad devices help with product

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orders, maintaining accurate store inventory and keeping up with corporate training sessions, iPhone devices improve the retail experience for customers by offering a mobile point of sale. Store employees also use the devices to offer customized skin care recommendations for guests. At Rituals, Apple devices powered by Jamf continue to enhance how employees work and how customers shop.

Geisinger

          The Challenge:    Geisinger aimed to improve the patient experience and take friction out of the care process through the use of technology. Given the strong compliancy requirements in healthcare, incorporating technology into workflows into the industry has traditionally been cumbersome and time consuming. In respect to the patient experience, the technology available to them has traditionally been a wall-mounted television and remote control. Geisinger aimed to provide a better overall experience for patients and medical staff, so they thought through their options in search of a creative solution.

          The Solution:    Geisinger found the answer with Jamf's patient bedside and clinical communications offerings. Through a deployment of more than 9,000 mobile devices (iPads/iPhones) and 350 Mac devices throughout its hospitals, Geisinger established the foundation for an enhanced patient experience. The integration of the Apple ecosystem gives patients the ability to access their health records in real time on iPad devices, in addition to providing educational materials that inform them about their condition — a way to keep them more engaged during their stay. As an additional benefit, iPad devices provide distraction therapy for children before they undergo an operation, which results in less required sedation and pain medication. When patients are discharged from the hospital, Jamf detects the transaction in the electronic medical system and automatically wipes and resets the iPads without assistance from IT, readying the device for the next incoming patient to use. This process automatically protects the patients' privacy and empowers Geisinger with the ability to scale their program. iPads now give patients at Geisinger hospitals an enhanced experience for the care that they receive as well as a window to a world of entertainment and accommodation while at the hospital.

          The benefits of Apple and Jamf in Geisinger also expand to the care team. With instant access to medical records, doctors can easily view a patient's medical records and any recent changes to their treatment plan before entering the room. This allows doctors to make the most of their time with patients and treat more patients each day. Jamf enables seamless device use across multiple areas within the hospital setting which has allowed Geisinger's implementation of Apple technology to revolutionize their approach to patient care. This has resulted in maximized staff productivity, instantaneous data access for patients, lower cost of care, and ultimately, satisfied doctors and patients.

Build America Mutual

          The Challenge:    Build America Mutual, or BAM, a US municipal bond insurer, is a financial firm that uses only Apple endpoint devices. BAM chose to use Apple devices in the early stages of the company eight years ago, as they wanted to create a similar experience for their employees at work as they had at home, and additionally, they believed that having solely Apple devices would lead to lower overhead IT costs. However, adhering to industry regulations and creating a strong security posture proved difficult. As their company matured, their IT team needed to take a more active stance against potential threats. They understood that two of the largest security risks come from outdated operating systems and software, along with application plugins which can sometimes contain malicious software.

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          The Solution:    Build America Mutual selected Jamf to help them protect and manage their employee devices. Jamf empowers BAM to keep their systems and software up to date and secure their endpoints with protection software. After deploying Jamf, BAM has reported unprecedented visibility into their Mac fleet, and they are now able to constantly monitor endpoints for behaviors linked to potential threats to identify, inspect, and take action on all endpoint security alerts. Along with these beneficial gains for BAM's IT and InfoSec teams, Jamf product transparency and low system requirements do not sacrifice employee experience at the expense of keeping the organization secure.


Customer Success

          We believe that the value generated by the adoption of our products is strengthened by our strong dedication to ensuring customer success and developing long-term relationships, as demonstrated by our Net Promoter Score that significantly exceeds industry averages.

          Our services department helps educate, support, and engage our customers to ensure their success with our software. We provide expertise to our customer base both virtually and onsite. We offer implementation services to encourage faster adoption of our products, and onsite instructor-led training courses for customers that have adopted our products. As part of this training, customers can obtain intermediate to expert-level certifications. We also offer consultative services specific to customer needs with both in-house professional service engineers and a vast array of integration partners who deliver services worldwide. Additionally, we offer consulting services specific for customers' need to ensure rapid adoption of our products. These services are provided by in-house professional service engineers and we utilize a vast array of integration partners that deliver services worldwide.

          Our technical support department consists of a four-tier technical support model. The department is strategically located in five countries around the world. We offer 24/7 premium support for customers who have more complex environments or require more comprehensive support. We maintain a robust and up-to-date knowledge base and online technical documentation resource base for our customers, along with an online training catalog with hundreds of video-based training modules aimed at helping them better understand and use our products. We strive to provide the best possible support for our customers and maintained a high customer satisfaction score over 9.2 out of 10 in 2018 based on our surveys.

          We value customer engagement and have a dedicated team of customer success professionals who work within three tiers of engagement models to proactively drive adoption, foster communication, and ensure the success of our products. We offer success planning exercises for our high-tier enterprise customers, and all customers benefit from our health scoring algorithm that uses multiple factors of product usage and company engagement to determine how we can best support their needs.

          It is important to us that our customers have the resources they need to succeed with Apple, and customers are encouraged to connect and engage with the larger community of Apple administrators. This is best evidenced by Jamf Nation. Complementing our world-class technical support, this active, grassroots community serves as a highly-qualified and efficient crowd-sourced Q&A engine for anyone with questions about Apple and Jamf deployments. Jamf Nation members come together to gain insight, share best practices, vet ideas with fellow administrators and submit product feature requests. We intend to continue investing in these relationships and ensure that our Jamf Nation community remains a vibrant forum for discussion and problem-solving for our customers.

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Research and Development

          Our research and development department is focused on enhancing our existing products and developing new products to maintain and extend our leadership position. Our department is built around small teams who practice agile development methodologies that enable us to innovate at a rapid pace and at scale on a global basis. The teams are organized to support our mission of helping organizations succeed with Apple and ensuring that we continue to deliver same-day support for Apple across our portfolio. In order to provide same day support for Apple, we deliberately schedule our annual efforts around Apple's anticipated product release schedules and we reserve engineering capacity accordingly. This nimble approach enables us to successfully support the Apple enterprise by staying current on Apple releases and delivering differentiated solutions, many of which form the core of our IP portfolio. Approximately 25% of our global employee base is dedicated to research and development. Our research and development teams are organized into teams that are focused by product and based principally in Minneapolis, MN, Eau Claire, WI and Katowice, Poland.


Intellectual Property

          We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, trade dress, and trade secret laws in the United States and other jurisdictions, as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our intellectual property and proprietary rights. These laws, procedures, and restrictions provide only limited protection. As of September 30, 2019, we owned four issued U.S. patents and four issued patents in foreign jurisdictions. Excluding any patent term adjustments or patent term extensions, our issued U.S. patents will expire between 2034 and 2035. We cannot be assured that any of our patent applications will result in the issuance of a patent or whether the examination process will require us to narrow the scope of the claims sought. Our issued patents, and any future patents issued to us, may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented, may not provide sufficiently broad protection and may not prove to be enforceable in actions against alleged infringers.

          We have registered "Jamf" and the "Jamf" logo as trademarks in the United States and other jurisdictions. We have also registered numerous Internet domain names related to our business.

          We enter into agreements with our employees, contractors, customers, partners, and other parties with which we do business to limit access to and disclosure of our technology and other proprietary information. We cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will be sufficient or effective to prevent the unauthorized access, use, copying or the reverse engineering of our technology and other proprietary information, including by third parties who may use our technology or other proprietary information to develop products and services that compete with ours. Moreover, others may independently develop technologies that are competitive with ours or that infringe on, misappropriate or otherwise violate our intellectual property and proprietary rights, and policing the unauthorized use of our intellectual property and proprietary rights can be difficult. The enforcement of our intellectual property and proprietary rights also depends on any legal actions we may bring against any such parties being successful, but these actions are costly, time-consuming and may not be successful, even when our rights have been infringed, misappropriated or otherwise violated.

          Furthermore, effective patent, copyright, trademark, trade dress, and trade secret protection may not be available in every country in which our products are available, as the laws of some countries do not protect intellectual property and proprietary rights to as great an extent as the laws of the United States. In addition, the legal standards relating to the validity, enforceability and scope of protection of intellectual property and proprietary rights are uncertain and still evolving.

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          Companies in the software industry or non-practicing entities may own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks and other intellectual property and proprietary rights, and these companies and entities may in the future request license agreements, threaten litigation or file suit against us based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of their intellectual property and proprietary rights.

          See "Risk Factors — Risks Relating to Our Business" for a more comprehensive description of risks related to our intellectual property.


Competition

          Our competition is generally comprised of large cross-platform enterprise providers and early stage providers of Apple enterprise solutions. Large enterprise providers, such as VMWare, Microsoft and IBM typically compete with us on one particular solution (e.g. device management, identity or endpoint-security) intended for cross-platform use and not specialized for Apple. Given Jamf's success, a number of early-stage companies are following our approach to deliver on an Apple ecosystem vision. While the latter category of competitors are Apple-focused, they are still single-product companies and none have grown to a meaningful scale to be considered material competitors.

          Key competitive factors in our market include:

          We believe that we compete favorably on these factors.


Culture and Employees

          Jamf is a culmination of passionate, committed and bright people who shape our culture and live our core values of Selflessness and Relentless Self-Improvement. We do not say we are the best. We strive to be the best — for our customers, employees and community. Our leaders encourage autonomy, exploration and innovation with spirit and enthusiasm. And through transparency, openness and humility, we embrace the opportunity to challenge ourselves. We are a group of curious, self-starters who thrive on taking initiative and are excited by global impact. Our employees enjoy the freedom to be themselves and work how they work best.

          As of September 30, 2019, we had 1,104 employees, of which 816 were employed in the United States and 288 were employed outside of the United States. We have high employee engagement and consider our current relationship with our employees to be good. In certain countries in which we operate we are subject to, and comply with, local labor law requirements,

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which automatically make our employees subject to industry-wide collective bargaini